Volume 554 Issue 7691, 8 February 2018

Volume 554 Issue 7691

The cover shows a model of a solar eruption in progress. In this week's issue, Tahar Amari and his colleagues suggest that one phenomenon could control the nature and behaviour of all such eruptions. There are two types of eruption: eruptive, which result in coronal mass ejections, and confined, which do not. The exact origin of confined eruptions has been hotly debated between two alternatives: topological complexity in the magnetic structure above the Sun's surface, or an unstable twisted magnetic flux rope. Amari and his team show that the latter process is more likely. To study this, the researchers focused on an eruption that took place in October 2014, predicting its evolution using a two-stage model. Their work reveals a strong multilayer magnetic cage (orange) in which a twisted flux rope (blue) develops. The magnetic energy of the rope increases over the course of several hours before the eruption, but is still not enough to break all of the layers of the cage. However, the twist in the rope is enough to trigger an instability that results in partial destruction of the cage. The resistance of the cage to the assault from the rope determines the type and amount of energy released in the eruption. If the rope is stronger than the cage and can break free, the result is eruptive; if the cage is stronger than the rope, the eruption is confined. Understanding the conditions that lead to solar eruptions may help to predict the events that might affect satellites, communications and ground-based power generation. Cover image: Tahar Amari/Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique

This Week

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Research

    Brief Communications Arising

  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Steven R. Holen
    • , Thomas A. Deméré
    • , Daniel C. Fisher
    • , Richard Fullagar
    • , James B. Paces
    • , George T. Jefferson
    • , Jared M. Beeton
    • , Richard A. Cerutti
    • , Adam N. Rountrey
    • , Lawrence Vescera
    •  & Kathleen A. Holen
  • News & Views

  • News & Views |

    An improved method for compressing wood substantially increases its strength and stiffness, opening up the possibility of applications in engineering for which natural wood is too weak.

    • Peter Fratzl
  • News & Views |

    When abnormality in a gene is linked to cancer and a drug targets the encoded protein, how can the patients who will respond to the drug be identified if the gene is mutated in many different ways in many different cancers?

    • Elaine Mardis
  • News & Views |

    Many governments subsidize the production and consumption of fossil fuels. Contrary to expectation, a study finds that removing these subsidies would only modestly reduce global carbon dioxide emissions.

    • Ian Parry
  • News & Views |

    Remote-sensing data for wild animals such as lions reveal that predators and prey optimize manoeuvrability rather than speed during the hunt.

    • Andrew A. Biewener
  • News & Views |

    In 2017, gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation were detected from the merger of two stellar remnants called neutron stars. An observational analysis reveals how this radiation was released from the merger.

    • Ralph Wijers
  • News & Views |

    An experimental technique allows packets of light called solitons to maintain their shape in all three dimensions as they travel through a material. Such wave packets could find applications in optical information processing.

    • Frank W. Wise
  • News & Views |

    In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick proposed that rarely formed isomers of DNA bases cause spontaneous mutations to occur during the copying of DNA. Sixty-five years later, it looks as though they were right.

    • Myron F. Goodman
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Analysis and modelling of locomotor characteristics of two pursuit predator–prey pairs show that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival.

    • Alan M. Wilson
    • , Tatjana Y. Hubel
    • , Simon D. Wilshin
    • , John C. Lowe
    • , Maja Lorenc
    • , Oliver P. Dewhirst
    • , Hattie L. A. Bartlam-Brooks
    • , Rebecca Diack
    • , Emily Bennitt
    • , Krystyna A. Golabek
    • , Roger C. Woledge
    • , J. Weldon McNutt
    • , Nancy A. Curtin
    •  & Timothy G. West
  • Article |

    In a basket trial design, the efficacy of the pan-HER kinase inhibitor neratinib is tested in patients with 21 different tumour types, and responses are determined by mutation and tissue type, and are restricted to HER2-mutant cancers.

    • David M. Hyman
    • , Sarina A. Piha-Paul
    • , Helen Won
    • , Jordi Rodon
    • , Cristina Saura
    • , Geoffrey I. Shapiro
    • , Dejan Juric
    • , David I. Quinn
    • , Victor Moreno
    • , Bernard Doger
    • , Ingrid A. Mayer
    • , Valentina Boni
    • , Emiliano Calvo
    • , Sherene Loi
    • , Albert C. Lockhart
    • , Joseph P. Erinjeri
    • , Maurizio Scaltriti
    • , Gary A. Ulaner
    • , Juber Patel
    • , Jiabin Tang
    • , Hannah Beer
    • , S. Duygu Selcuklu
    • , Aphrothiti J. Hanrahan
    • , Nancy Bouvier
    • , Myra Melcer
    • , Rajmohan Murali
    • , Alison M. Schram
    • , Lillian M. Smyth
    • , Komal Jhaveri
    • , Bob T. Li
    • , Alexander Drilon
    • , James J. Harding
    • , Gopa Iyer
    • , Barry S. Taylor
    • , Michael F. Berger
    • , Richard E. Cutler Jr
    • , Feng Xu
    • , Anna Butturini
    • , Lisa D. Eli
    • , Grace Mann
    • , Cynthia Farrell
    • , Alshad S. Lalani
    • , Richard P. Bryce
    • , Carlos L. Arteaga
    • , Funda Meric-Bernstam
    • , José Baselga
    •  & David B. Solit
  • Article |

    A kinetic model is proposed to predict the probability of dG•dT misincorporation across different polymerases, and provides mechanisms for sequence-dependent misincorporation.

    • Isaac J. Kimsey
    • , Eric S. Szymanski
    • , Walter J. Zahurancik
    • , Anisha Shakya
    • , Yi Xue
    • , Chia-Chieh Chu
    • , Bharathwaj Sathyamoorthy
    • , Zucai Suo
    •  & Hashim M. Al-Hashimi
  • Article |

    Cryo-electron microscopy and single-molecule studies reveal that the adaptors BICDR1 and HOOK3 recruit two dynein molecules to dynactin and thereby increase the force and speed of the dynein–dynactin microtubule motor.

    • Linas Urnavicius
    • , Clinton K. Lau
    • , Mohamed M. Elshenawy
    • , Edgar Morales-Rios
    • , Carina Motz
    • , Ahmet Yildiz
    •  & Andrew P. Carter
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    The observed electromagnetic emission from GW170817 suggests that a ‘cocoon’ of mildly relativistic material was released as a jet transferred its energy to the neutron-rich dynamical ejecta from the merger.

    • K. P. Mooley
    • , E. Nakar
    • , K. Hotokezaka
    • , G. Hallinan
    • , A. Corsi
    • , D. A. Frail
    • , A. Horesh
    • , T. Murphy
    • , E. Lenc
    • , D. L. Kaplan
    • , K. De
    • , D. Dobie
    • , P. Chandra
    • , A. Deller
    • , O. Gottlieb
    • , M. M. Kasliwal
    • , S. R. Kulkarni
    • , S. T. Myers
    • , S. Nissanke
    • , T. Piran
    • , C. Lynch
    • , V. Bhalerao
    • , S. Bourke
    • , K. W. Bannister
    •  & L. P. Singer
  • Letter |

    Measurements and modelling of a large confined eruption on the Sun show that its evolution is controlled by a multilayer magnetic cage containing a twisted flux rope, which can sometimes be ejective.

    • Tahar Amari
    • , Aurélien Canou
    • , Jean-Jacques Aly
    • , Francois Delyon
    •  & Fréderic Alauzet
  • Letter |

    Experimental evidence is presented for isomer depletion through nuclear excitation by electron capture in molybdenum-93 nuclei.

    • C. J. Chiara
    • , J. J. Carroll
    • , M. P. Carpenter
    • , J. P. Greene
    • , D. J. Hartley
    • , R. V. F. Janssens
    • , G. J. Lane
    • , J. C. Marsh
    • , D. A. Matters
    • , M. Polasik
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    • , S. Zhu
    • , S. Bottoni
    • , A. B. Hayes
    •  & S. A. Karamian
  • Letter |

    Many-body two- and three-string states are realized experimentally in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg–Ising chain SrCo2V2O8 in strong longitudinal magnetic fields.

    • Zhe Wang
    • , Jianda Wu
    • , Wang Yang
    • , Anup Kumar Bera
    • , Dmytro Kamenskyi
    • , A. T. M. Nazmul Islam
    • , Shenglong Xu
    • , Joseph Matthew Law
    • , Bella Lake
    • , Congjun Wu
    •  & Alois Loidl
  • Letter |

    A process is described for the transformation of bulk wood into a low-cost, strong, tough, lightweight structural material, by the partial removal of lignin and hemicellulose followed by hot-pressing to densify the natural wood.

    • Jianwei Song
    • , Chaoji Chen
    • , Shuze Zhu
    • , Mingwei Zhu
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    • , Upamanyu Ray
    • , Yiju Li
    • , Yudi Kuang
    • , Yongfeng Li
    • , Nelson Quispe
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    • , Amy Gong
    • , Ulrich H. Leiste
    • , Hugh A. Bruck
    • , J. Y. Zhu
    • , Azhar Vellore
    • , Heng Li
    • , Marilyn L. Minus
    • , Zheng Jia
    • , Ashlie Martini
    • , Teng Li
    •  & Liangbing Hu
  • Letter |

    Contrary to the hopes of policymakers, fossil fuel subsidy removal would have only a small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030.

    • Jessica Jewell
    • , David McCollum
    • , Johannes Emmerling
    • , Christoph Bertram
    • , David E. H. J. Gernaat
    • , Volker Krey
    • , Leonidas Paroussos
    • , Loïc Berger
    • , Kostas Fragkiadakis
    • , Ilkka Keppo
    • , Nawfal Saadi
    • , Massimo Tavoni
    • , Detlef van Vuuren
    • , Vadim Vinichenko
    •  & Keywan Riahi
  • Letter |

    A dated phylogeny and spatial distribution data for Chinese angiosperms show that eastern China has tended to act as a refugium for older taxa whereas western China has acted as a centre for their evolutionary diversification.

    • Li-Min Lu
    • , Ling-Feng Mao
    • , Tuo Yang
    • , Jian-Fei Ye
    • , Bing Liu
    • , Hong-Lei Li
    • , Miao Sun
    • , Joseph T. Miller
    • , Sarah Mathews
    • , Hai-Hua Hu
    • , Yan-Ting Niu
    • , Dan-Xiao Peng
    • , You-Hua Chen
    • , Stephen A. Smith
    • , Min Chen
    • , Kun-Li Xiang
    • , Chi-Toan Le
    • , Viet-Cuong Dang
    • , An-Ming Lu
    • , Pamela S. Soltis
    • , Douglas E. Soltis
    • , Jian-Hua Li
    •  & Zhi-Duan Chen
  • Letter |

    Gene enhancer knockout phenotypes and analysis of enhancer activity patterns show that developmental genes are regulated by multiple redundant enhancers in mouse embryos.

    • Marco Osterwalder
    • , Iros Barozzi
    • , Virginie Tissières
    • , Yoko Fukuda-Yuzawa
    • , Brandon J. Mannion
    • , Sarah Y. Afzal
    • , Elizabeth A. Lee
    • , Yiwen Zhu
    • , Ingrid Plajzer-Frick
    • , Catherine S. Pickle
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    • , Anne N. Harrington
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    • , Veena Afzal
    • , Javier Lopez-Rios
    • , Diane E. Dickel
    • , Axel Visel
    •  & Len A. Pennacchio
  • Letter |

    Measurement of human plasma amyloid-β biomarkers using immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry reliably predicts individual brain amyloid-β status and has potential clinical utility.

    • Akinori Nakamura
    • , Naoki Kaneko
    • , Victor L. Villemagne
    • , Takashi Kato
    • , James Doecke
    • , Vincent Doré
    • , Chris Fowler
    • , Qiao-Xin Li
    • , Ralph Martins
    • , Christopher Rowe
    • , Taisuke Tomita
    • , Katsumi Matsuzaki
    • , Kenji Ishii
    • , Kazunari Ishii
    • , Yutaka Arahata
    • , Shinichi Iwamoto
    • , Kengo Ito
    • , Koichi Tanaka
    • , Colin L. Masters
    •  & Katsuhiko Yanagisawa
  • Letter |

    Analysis at high temporal and spatial resolution shows that the number and dynamics of SNARE proteins available during exocytosis determines the size and stability of fusion pores.

    • Huan Bao
    • , Debasis Das
    • , Nicholas A. Courtney
    • , Yihao Jiang
    • , Joseph S. Briguglio
    • , Xiaochu Lou
    • , Daniel Roston
    • , Qiang Cui
    • , Baron Chanda
    •  & Edwin R. Chapman

Corrections

    Corrections

  • Corrigendum

  • Corrigendum |

    • Christopher Abbosh
    • , Nicolai J. Birkbak
    • , Gareth A. Wilson
    • , Mariam Jamal-Hanjani
    • , Tudor Constantin
    • , Raheleh Salari
    • , John Le Quesne
    • , David A. Moore
    • , Selvaraju Veeriah
    • , Rachel Rosenthal
    • , Teresa Marafioti
    • , Eser Kirkizlar
    • , Thomas B. K. Watkins
    • , Nicholas McGranahan
    • , Sophia Ward
    • , Luke Martinson
    • , Joan Riley
    • , Francesco Fraioli
    • , Maise Al Bakir
    • , Eva Grönroos
    • , Francisco Zambrana
    • , Raymondo Endozo
    • , Wenya Linda Bi
    • , Fiona M. Fennessy
    • , Nicole Sponer
    • , Diana Johnson
    • , Joanne Laycock
    • , Seema Shafi
    • , Justyna Czyzewska-Khan
    • , Andrew Rowan
    • , Tim Chambers
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    • , Crispin Hiley
    • , Siow Ming Lee
    • , Martin D. Forster
    • , Tanya Ahmad
    • , Mary Falzon
    • , Elaine Borg
    • , David Lawrence
    • , Martin Hayward
    • , Shyam Kolvekar
    • , Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos
    • , Sam M. Janes
    • , Ricky Thakrar
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    • , Fiona Blackhall
    • , Yvonne Summers
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    • , Babikir Ismail
    • , Melanie Irvin-Sellers
    • , Vineet Prakash
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    • , Richard Attanoos
    • , Haydn Adams
    • , Helen Davies
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    • , Ayse U. Akarca
    • , John A. Hartley
    • , Helen L. Lowe
    • , Sara Lock
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    • , Roland F. Schwarz
    • , Javier Herrero
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    •  & Charles Swanton
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