Volume 506 Issue 7486, 6 February 2014

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Europe’s policy-makers must not buy animal-rights activists’ arguments that addiction is a social, rather than a medical, problem.

  • Editorial |

    UK immigration rules are perceived as being tougher than they really are.

  • Editorial |

    The Amazon doesn’t absorb extra carbon in the dry season after all. It can become a carbon source.

World View

Research Highlights

Seven Days

  • Seven Days |

    The week in science: Trouble for North American butterfly migration, waste dumping approved in Great Barrier Reef, and lab-animal reforms for UK university.

News

News Feature

Comment

Books & Arts

  • Books & Arts |

    Henry Gee relishes the memoir of Svante Pääbo, a leader in the field of ancient DNA.

    • Henry Gee
  • Books & Arts |

    Xu Xing applauds a study tracing the links between Chinese nationalism and geology.

    • Xu Xing
  • Books & Arts |

    Acoustical engineer Trevor Cox has designed concert halls, but recently turned to 'sound tourism' — gathering audible phenomena worldwide for his book Sonic Wonderland. He talks about burping sand dunes, the bass baritone of a cracking glacier and the hiss of the nervous system.

    • Jascha Hoffman

Correspondence

Obituary

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Aircraft have captured the 'breath' of the Amazon forest — carbon emissions over the Amazon basin. The findings raise concerns about the effects of future drought and call for a reassessment of how fire is used in the region. See Letter p.76

    • Jennifer K. Balch
  • News & Views |

    Oily substances in the skin have now been shown to contain structures that activate a population of skin-homing, self-reactive T cells. The responses of these immune cells may contribute to local defences, but also to autoimmune disease.

    • Mitchell Kronenberg
    •  & Wendy L. Havran
  • News & Views |

    By separately scattering right- and left-handed electrons off quarks in a deuterium target, researchers have improved, by about a factor of five, on a classic result of mirror-symmetry breaking from 35 years ago. See Letter p.67

    • William J. Marciano
  • News & Views |

    Ecologists have long pondered how so many species of plant can coexist locally in tropical forests. It seems that fungal pathogens have a central role, by disadvantaging species where they are locally common. See Letter p.85

    • Helene C. Muller-Landau
  • News & Views |

    Members of a newly described candidate bacterial genus, Entotheonella, have been identified as the sources of the rich array of natural products found in the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Two scientists discuss this discovery from the perspectives of microbial ecology and drug discovery. See Article p.58

    • Marcel Jaspars
    •  & Greg Challis
  • News & Views |

    A broad in vivo screen of the effects of specific gene inhibition on the antitumour activity of immune cells in mice bearing melanomas has revealed potential targets for cancer therapy. See Article p.52

    • Lars Zender

Futures

Letter

  • Letter |

    Newly synthesized proteins are targeted to the SecY protein-conducting channel for translocation across the membrane; here, cryo-electron microscopy structures of inactive and active ribosome–channel complexes are presented, revealing that ribosome binding does not result in major structural changes to transmembrane regions of the channel, and that stable channel opening requires loop insertion of the translocating nascent chain.

    • Eunyong Park
    • , Jean-François Ménétret
    • , James C. Gumbart
    • , Steven J. Ludtke
    • , Weikai Li
    • , Andrew Whynot
    • , Tom A. Rapoport
    •  & Christopher W. Akey
  • Letter |

    The crystal structure of the Lsm protein ring of the U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP), with and without an RNA comprising the 3′ end of the U6 small nuclear RNA, is solved here; this structure provides insight into the function of U6 snRNP in precursor messenger RNA splicing.

    • Lijun Zhou
    • , Jing Hang
    • , Yulin Zhou
    • , Ruixue Wan
    • , Guifeng Lu
    • , Ping Yin
    • , Chuangye Yan
    •  & Yigong Shi
  • Letter |

    A risk haplotype for type 2 diabetes is identified with four amino acid substitutions in SLC16A11, which is present at 50% frequency in Native American samples and 10% in east Asian samples, but is rare in European and African samples; SLC16A11 may alter hepatic lipid metabolism, causing an increase in triacylglycerol levels.

    • Amy L. Williams
    • , Suzanne B. R. Jacobs
    • , Hortensia Moreno-Macías
    • , Alicia Huerta-Chagoya
    • , Claire Churchhouse
    • , Carla Márquez-Luna
    • , Humberto García-Ortíz
    • , María José Gómez-Vázquez
    • , Noël P. Burtt
    • , Carlos A. Aguilar-Salinas
    • , Clicerio González-Villalpando
    • , Jose C. Florez
    • , Lorena Orozco
    • , Christopher A. Haiman
    • , Teresa Tusié-Luna
    • , David Altshuler
    • , Amy L. Williams
    • , Carla Márquez-Luna
    • , Alicia Huerta-Chagoya
    • , Stephan Ripke
    • , María José Gómez-Vázquez
    • , Alisa K. Manning
    • , Hortensia Moreno-Macías
    • , Humberto García-Ortíz
    • , Benjamin Neale
    • , Noël P. Burtt
    • , Carlos A. Aguilar-Salinas
    • , David Reich
    • , Daniel O. Stram
    • , Juan Carlos Fernández-López
    • , Sandra Romero-Hidalgo
    • , David Altshuler
    • , Jose C. Florez
    • , Teresa Tusié-Luna
    • , Nick Patterson
    • , Christopher A. Haiman
    • , Irma Aguilar-Delfín
    • , Angélica Martínez-Hernández
    • , Federico Centeno-Cruz
    • , Elvia Mendoza-Caamal
    • , Cristina Revilla-Monsalve
    • , Sergio Islas-Andrade
    • , Emilio Córdova
    • , Eunice Rodríguez-Arellano
    • , Xavier Soberón
    • , Lorena Orozco
    • , Jose C. Florez
    • , Clicerio González-Villalpando
    • , María Elena González-Villalpando
    • , Christopher A. Haiman
    • , Brian E. Henderson
    • , Kristine Monroe
    • , Lynne Wilkens
    • , Laurence N. Kolonel
    • , Loic Le Marchand
    • , Laura Riba
    • , María Luisa Ordóñez-Sánchez
    • , Rosario Rodríguez-Guillén
    • , Ivette Cruz-Bautista
    • , Maribel Rodríguez-Torres
    • , Linda Liliana Muñoz-Hernández
    • , Tamara Sáenz
    • , Donají Gómez
    • , Ulices Alvirde
    • , Noël P. Burtt
    • , Robert C. Onofrio
    • , Wendy M. Brodeur
    • , Diane Gage
    • , Jacquelyn Murphy
    • , Jennifer Franklin
    • , Scott Mahan
    • , Kristin Ardlie
    • , Andrew T. Crenshaw
    • , Wendy Winckler
    • , Kay Prüfer
    • , Michael V. Shunkov
    • , Susanna Sawyer
    • , Udo Stenzel
    • , Janet Kelso
    • , Monkol Lek
    • , Sriram Sankararaman
    • , Amy L. Williams
    • , Nick Patterson
    • , Daniel G. MacArthur
    • , David Reich
    • , Anatoli P. Derevianko
    • , Svante Pääbo
    • , Suzanne B. R. Jacobs
    • , Claire Churchhouse
    • , Shuba Gopal
    • , James A. Grammatikos
    • , Ian C. Smith
    • , Kevin H. Bullock
    • , Amy A. Deik
    • , Amanda L. Souza
    • , Kerry A. Pierce
    • , Clary B. Clish
    • , David Altshuler
    • , Timothy Fennell
    • , Yossi Farjoun
    • , Broad Genomics Platform*
    • , Stacey Gabriel
    • , Daniel O. Stram
    • , Myron D. Gross
    • , Mark A. Pereira
    • , Mark Seielstad
    • , Woon-Puay Koh
    • , E-Shyong Tai
    • , Jason Flannick
    • , Pierre Fontanillas
    • , Andrew Morris
    • , Tanya M. Teslovich
    • , Noël P. Burtt
    • , Gil Atzmon
    • , John Blangero
    • , Donald W. Bowden
    • , John Chambers
    • , Yoon Shin Cho
    • , Ravindranath Duggirala
    • , Benjamin Glaser
    • , Craig Hanis
    • , Jaspal Kooner
    • , Markku Laakso
    • , Jong-Young Lee
    • , E-Shyong Tai
    • , Yik Ying Teo
    • , James G. Wilson
    • , Christopher A. Haiman
    • , Brian E. Henderson
    • , Kristine Monroe
    • , Lynne Wilkens
    • , Laurence N. Kolonel
    • , Loic Le Marchand
    • , Sobha Puppala
    • , Vidya S. Farook
    • , Farook Thameem
    • , Hanna E. Abboud
    • , Ralph A. DeFronzo
    • , Christopher P. Jenkinson
    • , Donna M. Lehman
    • , Joanne E. Curran
    • , John Blangero
    • , Ravindranath Duggirala
    • , Noël P. Burtt
    • , Maria L. Cortes
    • , David Altshuler
    • , Jose C. Florez
    • , Christopher A. Haiman
    • , Brian E. Henderson
    • , Carlos A. Aguilar-Salinas
    • , Clicerio González-Villalpando
    • , Lorena Orozco
    •  & Teresa Tusié-Luna
  • Letter |

    This large comparative phylogenetic study across angiosperms shows that species that are herbaceous or have small conduits evolved these traits before colonizing environments with freezing conditions, whereas deciduous species changed their climate niche before becoming deciduous.

    • Amy E. Zanne
    • , David C. Tank
    • , William K. Cornwell
    • , Jonathan M. Eastman
    • , Stephen A. Smith
    • , Richard G. FitzJohn
    • , Daniel J. McGlinn
    • , Brian C. O’Meara
    • , Angela T. Moles
    • , Peter B. Reich
    • , Dana L. Royer
    • , Douglas E. Soltis
    • , Peter F. Stevens
    • , Mark Westoby
    • , Ian J. Wright
    • , Lonnie Aarssen
    • , Robert I. Bertin
    • , Andre Calaminus
    • , Rafaël Govaerts
    • , Frank Hemmings
    • , Michelle R. Leishman
    • , Jacek Oleksyn
    • , Pamela S. Soltis
    • , Nathan G. Swenson
    • , Laura Warman
    •  & Jeremy M. Beaulieu
  • Letter |

    Observations of a cosmic web filament have been made in Lyman-α emission; the filament has a projected size of approximately 460 physical kiloparsecs, and its estimated cold gas mass is more than ten times larger than what is typically found in cosmological simulations.

    • Sebastiano Cantalupo
    • , Fabrizio Arrigoni-Battaia
    • , J. Xavier Prochaska
    • , Joseph F. Hennawi
    •  & Piero Madau
  • Letter |

    Suppressing fungi in a tropical forest plant community lowers diversity by reducing the negative effects of density on seedling recruitment, and removing insects increases seedling survival and alters plant community composition; this demonstrates the crucial role of pathogens and insects in maintaining and structuring tropical forest plant diversity.

    • Robert Bagchi
    • , Rachel E. Gallery
    • , Sofia Gripenberg
    • , Sarah J. Gurr
    • , Lakshmi Narayan
    • , Claire E. Addis
    • , Robert P. Freckleton
    •  & Owen T. Lewis
  • Letter |

    Sea-ice leads (open water channels), which increase with an ongoing shift from perennial to seasonal sea ice, are shown to initiate convection in the Arctic boundary layer, thus supplying ozone and gaseous mercury to the surface and possibly leading to additional pollution effects.

    • Christopher W. Moore
    • , Daniel Obrist
    • , Alexandra Steffen
    • , Ralf M. Staebler
    • , Thomas A. Douglas
    • , Andreas Richter
    •  & Son V. Nghiem
  • Letter |

    In the search for stable and accurate atomic clocks, many-atom lattice clocks have shown higher precision than clocks based on single trapped ions, but have been less accurate; here, a stable many-atom clock is demonstrated that has accuracy better than single-ion clocks.

    • B. J. Bloom
    • , T. L. Nicholson
    • , J. R. Williams
    • , S. L. Campbell
    • , M. Bishof
    • , X. Zhang
    • , W. Zhang
    • , S. L. Bromley
    •  & J. Ye
  • Letter |

    Nascent secretory and membrane proteins are targeted to the Sec61 protein-conducting channel for translocation across or insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane; here cryo-electron microscopy structures of eukaryotic ribosome–channel complexes show how this channel opens vertically during translocation of a secretory protein into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and how it opens laterally during insertion of a transmembrane domain into the lipid bilayer.

    • Marko Gogala
    • , Thomas Becker
    • , Birgitta Beatrix
    • , Jean-Paul Armache
    • , Clara Barrio-Garcia
    • , Otto Berninghausen
    •  & Roland Beckmann
  • Letter |

    Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide measurements across the Amazon basin for 2010 and 2011 reveal that drought rather than temperature caused the observed halt in forest productivity during the anomalously dry year of 2010.

    • L. V. Gatti
    • , M. Gloor
    • , J. B. Miller
    • , C. E. Doughty
    • , Y. Malhi
    • , L. G. Domingues
    • , L. S. Basso
    • , A. Martinewski
    • , C. S. C. Correia
    • , V. F. Borges
    • , S. Freitas
    • , R. Braz
    • , L. O. Anderson
    • , H. Rocha
    • , J. Grace
    • , O. L. Phillips
    •  & J. Lloyd
  • Letter |

    A high-precision parity-violating electron–quark scattering experiment provides measurements of a combination of electron–quark weak couplings with a precision five times higher than the single previous direct study, confirming the predictions of the electroweak particle-physics theory and providing constraints on parity-violating interactions beyond the standard model.

    • D. Wang
    • , K. Pan
    • , R. Subedi
    • , X. Deng
    • , Z. Ahmed
    • , K. Allada
    • , K. A. Aniol
    • , D. S. Armstrong
    • , J. Arrington
    • , V. Bellini
    • , R. Beminiwattha
    • , J. Benesch
    • , F. Benmokhtar
    • , W. Bertozzi
    • , A. Camsonne
    • , M. Canan
    • , G. D. Cates
    • , J.-P. Chen
    • , E. Chudakov
    • , E. Cisbani
    • , M. M. Dalton
    • , C. W. de Jager
    • , R. De Leo
    • , W. Deconinck
    • , A. Deur
    • , C. Dutta
    • , L. El Fassi
    • , J. Erler
    • , D. Flay
    • , G. B. Franklin
    • , M. Friend
    • , S. Frullani
    • , F. Garibaldi
    • , S. Gilad
    • , A. Giusa
    • , A. Glamazdin
    • , S. Golge
    • , K. Grimm
    • , K. Hafidi
    • , J.-O. Hansen
    • , D. W. Higinbotham
    • , R. Holmes
    • , T. Holmstrom
    • , R. J. Holt
    • , J. Huang
    • , C. E. Hyde
    • , C. M. Jen
    • , D. Jones
    • , Hoyoung Kang
    • , P. M. King
    • , S. Kowalski
    • , K. S. Kumar
    • , J. H. Lee
    • , J. J. LeRose
    • , N. Liyanage
    • , E. Long
    • , D. McNulty
    • , D. J. Margaziotis
    • , F. Meddi
    • , D. G. Meekins
    • , L. Mercado
    • , Z.-E. Meziani
    • , R. Michaels
    • , M. Mihovilovic
    • , N. Muangma
    • , K. E. Myers
    • , S. Nanda
    • , A. Narayan
    • , V. Nelyubin
    • , Nuruzzaman
    • , Y. Oh
    • , D. Parno
    • , K. D. Paschke
    • , S. K. Phillips
    • , X. Qian
    • , Y. Qiang
    • , B. Quinn
    • , A. Rakhman
    • , P. E. Reimer
    • , K. Rider
    • , S. Riordan
    • , J. Roche
    • , J. Rubin
    • , G. Russo
    • , K. Saenboonruang
    • , A. Saha
    • , B. Sawatzky
    • , A. Shahinyan
    • , R. Silwal
    • , S. Sirca
    • , P. A. Souder
    • , R. Suleiman
    • , V. Sulkosky
    • , C. M. Sutera
    • , W. A. Tobias
    • , G. M. Urciuoli
    • , B. Waidyawansa
    • , B. Wojtsekhowski
    • , L. Ye
    • , B. Zhao
    •  & X. Zheng

Article

  • Article |

    By analysing plant and nematode DNA from sites all around the Arctic, it is shown that vegetation before about 10,000 years ago contained more forbs (non-graminoid herbaceous vascular plants) than previously believed, which changes our understanding about the functioning of the diverse northern ecosystem that existed at this time.

    • Eske Willerslev
    • , John Davison
    • , Mari Moora
    • , Martin Zobel
    • , Eric Coissac
    • , Mary E. Edwards
    • , Eline D. Lorenzen
    • , Mette Vestergård
    • , Galina Gussarova
    • , James Haile
    • , Joseph Craine
    • , Ludovic Gielly
    • , Sanne Boessenkool
    • , Laura S. Epp
    • , Peter B. Pearman
    • , Rachid Cheddadi
    • , David Murray
    • , Kari Anne Bråthen
    • , Nigel Yoccoz
    • , Heather Binney
    • , Corinne Cruaud
    • , Patrick Wincker
    • , Tomasz Goslar
    • , Inger Greve Alsos
    • , Eva Bellemain
    • , Anne Krag Brysting
    • , Reidar Elven
    • , Jørn Henrik Sønstebø
    • , Julian Murton
    • , Andrei Sher
    • , Morten Rasmussen
    • , Regin Rønn
    • , Tobias Mourier
    • , Alan Cooper
    • , Jeremy Austin
    • , Per Möller
    • , Duane Froese
    • , Grant Zazula
    • , François Pompanon
    • , Delphine Rioux
    • , Vincent Niderkorn
    • , Alexei Tikhonov
    • , Grigoriy Savvinov
    • , Richard G. Roberts
    • , Ross D. E. MacPhee
    • , M. Thomas P. Gilbert
    • , Kurt H. Kjær
    • , Ludovic Orlando
    • , Christian Brochmann
    •  & Pierre Taberlet
  • Article | | Open Access

    Single-cell- and metagenomics-based study reveals two members of the candidate genus ‘Entotheonella’, symbionts of the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei; distinct biosynthetic gene clusters that account for most of the bioactive polyketides and peptides known from T. swinhoei are shown to be attributable to a single member of the T. swinhoei Y microbiome.

    • Micheal C. Wilson
    • , Tetsushi Mori
    • , Christian Rückert
    • , Agustinus R. Uria
    • , Maximilian J. Helf
    • , Kentaro Takada
    • , Christine Gernert
    • , Ursula A. E. Steffens
    • , Nina Heycke
    • , Susanne Schmitt
    • , Christian Rinke
    • , Eric J. N. Helfrich
    • , Alexander O. Brachmann
    • , Cristian Gurgui
    • , Toshiyuki Wakimoto
    • , Matthias Kracht
    • , Max Crüsemann
    • , Ute Hentschel
    • , Ikuro Abe
    • , Shigeki Matsunaga
    • , Jörn Kalinowski
    • , Haruko Takeyama
    •  & Jörn Piel
  • Article |

    A short hairpin RNA screen to identify genes that modify the action of tumour-infiltrating CD8 T cells in tumour-bearing mice pinpointed the phosphatase subunit Ppp2r2d as a new target for tumour therapy; knockdown of Ppp2r2d in T cells enabled their accumulation in tumours and significantly delayed tumour growth.

    • Penghui Zhou
    • , Donald R. Shaffer
    • , Diana A. Alvarez Arias
    • , Yukoh Nakazaki
    • , Wouter Pos
    • , Alexis J. Torres
    • , Viviana Cremasco
    • , Stephanie K. Dougan
    • , Glenn S. Cowley
    • , Kutlu Elpek
    • , Jennifer Brogdon
    • , John Lamb
    • , Shannon J. Turley
    • , Hidde L. Ploegh
    • , David E. Root
    • , J. Christopher Love
    • , Glenn Dranoff
    • , Nir Hacohen
    • , Harvey Cantor
    •  & Kai W. Wucherpfennig

Feature

Career Brief

  • Career Brief |

    References in research blogs correlated with increased journal citations.

  • Career Brief |

    European universities broaden PhD career-path training, according to report.

  • Career Brief |

    Doctoral studentships offered for UK universities.

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