Volume 499 Issue 7459, 25 July 2013

This three-dimensional isosurface rendering of the distribution of carbon monoxide emission in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253, imaged by the ALMA radio telescope, shows the filaments of a cool molecular wind in position-position-velocity space. Colour corresponds to the intensity of emission from red (faint) to blue-purple (bright). New interferometric observations that reveal the central two kiloparsec region of NGC 253 in unprecedented detail make it possible to measure the mass-outflow rate of the starburst system for the first time. By ejecting around nine solar masses per year (three times the mass converted to stars in the same period), the starburst-driven superwind� limits the star formation rate and the number of stars produced in this galaxy. Cover: Erik Rosolowsky

Editorial

World View

Research Highlights

Seven Days

News

Correction

News Feature

Comment

  • Comment |

    Methane released by melting permafrost will have global impacts that must be better modelled, say Gail Whiteman, Chris Hope and Peter Wadhams.

    • Gail Whiteman
    • , Chris Hope
    •  & Peter Wadhams

Books & Arts

  • Books & Arts |

    Daniel Cressey delves into a sceptics' history of monster hunters and their mythical quarry.

    • Daniel Cressey
  • Books & Arts |

    Dane Maxwell is the specialist in Hawaiian traditional culture advising the US National Solar Observatory and its partners as they build the world's largest solar observatory atop Haleakala on the island of Maui. He talks about the sacred mountain, known as the house of the Sun, and local responses to the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST).

    • Alexandra Witze

Correspondence

Obituary

  • Obituary |

    Chemist who pioneered mathematical methods to solve crystal structures.

    • Wayne A. Hendrickson

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    An outbreak of avian H7N9 influenza in humans was reported in early 2013. Structural and infection studies are helping to reveal how these viruses can adapt to infect, and potentially transmit in, new species. See Letters p.496 & p.500

    • David A. Steinhauer
  • News & Views |

    Whenever a medium's dispersion and nonlinear properties appear hand in hand, particle-like entities known as solitons can form. These have now been observed in a gas of strongly interacting fermionic atoms. See Article p.426

    • Christoph Becker
  • News & Views |

    Activation of the signalling molecule SHP2 is implicated in driving several cancers. In a newly described class of bone-progenitor cells, however, it seems that the protein acts as a tumour suppressor. See Letter p.491

    • Mone Zaidi
    •  & Simón Méndez-Ferrer
  • News & Views |

    Observations obtained by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array in Chile's Atacama Desert have revealed properties of the cold molecular phase of the wind that is being blown out of a nearby starburst galaxy. See Letter p.450

    • Mark Westmoquette
  • News & Views |

    The first crystal structures of class B G-protein-coupled receptors have been solved. They reveal features that might inform drug-development strategies for diseases ranging from osteoporosis to diabetes. See Articles p.438 & p.444

    • Patrick M. Sexton
    •  & Denise Wootten

Correction

Perspective

  • Perspective |

    Fabrication techniques developed for graphene research allow the disassembly of many layered crystals (so-called van der Waals materials) into individual atomic planes and their reassembly into designer heterostructures, which reveal new properties and phenomena.

    • A. K. Geim
    •  & I. V. Grigorieva

Article

  • Article |

    Solitons — solitary waves that maintain their shape as they propagate — in a strongly interacting superfluid of fermionic lithium atoms are found to have an effective mass more than 50 times larger than the theoretically predicted value, a sign of strong quantum fluctuations.

    • Tarik Yefsah
    • , Ariel T. Sommer
    • , Mark J. H. Ku
    • , Lawrence W. Cheuk
    • , Wenjie Ji
    • , Waseem S. Bakr
    •  & Martin W. Zwierlein
  • Article | | Open Access

    Uncultivated archaeal and bacterial cells of major uncharted branches of the tree of life are targeted and sequenced using single-cell genomics; this enables resolution of many intra- and inter-phylum-level relationships, uncovers unexpected metabolic features that challenge established boundaries between the three domains of life, and leads to the proposal of two new superphyla.

    • Christian Rinke
    • , Patrick Schwientek
    • , Alexander Sczyrba
    • , Natalia N. Ivanova
    • , Iain J. Anderson
    • , Jan-Fang Cheng
    • , Aaron Darling
    • , Stephanie Malfatti
    • , Brandon K. Swan
    • , Esther A. Gies
    • , Jeremy A. Dodsworth
    • , Brian P. Hedlund
    • , George Tsiamis
    • , Stefan M. Sievert
    • , Wen-Tso Liu
    • , Jonathan A. Eisen
    • , Steven J. Hallam
    • , Nikos C. Kyrpides
    • , Ramunas Stepanauskas
    • , Edward M. Rubin
    • , Philip Hugenholtz
    •  & Tanja Woyke
  • Article |

    Approximately 30% of known drugs target G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), but all the published structures of GPCRs to date are from the class A family of GPCRs; here the first X-ray crystal structure of a member of the class B family of GPCRs, the human corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1, is determined.

    • Kaspar Hollenstein
    • , James Kean
    • , Andrea Bortolato
    • , Robert K. Y. Cheng
    • , Andrew S. Doré
    • , Ali Jazayeri
    • , Robert M. Cooke
    • , Malcolm Weir
    •  & Fiona H. Marshall
  • Article |

    The X-ray crystal structure of the human glucagon receptor, a potential drug target for type 2 diabetes, offers a structural basis for molecular recognition by class B G-protein-coupled receptors.

    • Fai Yiu Siu
    • , Min He
    • , Chris de Graaf
    • , Gye Won Han
    • , Dehua Yang
    • , Zhiyun Zhang
    • , Caihong Zhou
    • , Qingping Xu
    • , Daniel Wacker
    • , Jeremiah S. Joseph
    • , Wei Liu
    • , Jesper Lau
    • , Vadim Cherezov
    • , Vsevolod Katritch
    • , Ming-Wei Wang
    •  & Raymond C. Stevens

Letter

  • Letter |

    Observations of the galaxy NGC 253 show that the cool molecular wind from the central starburst region limits star-formation activity and the final stellar content.

    • Alberto D. Bolatto
    • , Steven R. Warren
    • , Adam K. Leroy
    • , Fabian Walter
    • , Sylvain Veilleux
    • , Eve C. Ostriker
    • , Jürgen Ott
    • , Martin Zwaan
    • , David B. Fisher
    • , Axel Weiss
    • , Erik Rosolowsky
    •  & Jacqueline Hodge
  • Letter |

    The age of the representative Martian meteorite NWA 5298 is determined using spatially correlated electron-beam nanostructural and uranium–lead isotopic measurements of microminerals, resolving a paradox of different age interpretations for the evolution of Martian crust.

    • D. E. Moser
    • , K. R. Chamberlain
    • , K. T. Tait
    • , A. K. Schmitt
    • , J. R. Darling
    • , I. R. Barker
    •  & B. C. Hyde
  • Letter |

    Electronic sensor foils only 2 μm thick are extremely light, 27-fold lighter than office paper, durable and flexible and conform to curvilinear surfaces for many innovative applications.

    • Martin Kaltenbrunner
    • , Tsuyoshi Sekitani
    • , Jonathan Reeder
    • , Tomoyuki Yokota
    • , Kazunori Kuribara
    • , Takeyoshi Tokuhara
    • , Michael Drack
    • , Reinhard Schwödiauer
    • , Ingrid Graz
    • , Simona Bauer-Gogonea
    • , Siegfried Bauer
    •  & Takao Someya
  • Letter |

    A modelling study of the mechanisms of extinction within ecological networks reveals how even a small reduction in the population size of a species may lead to the loss of its ecological functionality—that is, to its functional extinction—by causing extinction of other organisms in the food web, often only indirectly connected to the focal species, revealing the value of conservation strategies that target a broader ecological network.

    • Torbjörn Säterberg
    • , Stefan Sellman
    •  & Bo Ebenman
  • Letter | | Open Access

    High-coverage sequencing of 79 (wild and captive) individuals representing all six non-human great ape species has identified over 88 million single nucleotide polymorphisms providing insight into ape genetic variation and evolutionary history and enabling comparison with human genetic diversity.

    • Javier Prado-Martinez
    • , Peter H. Sudmant
    • , Jeffrey M. Kidd
    • , Heng Li
    • , Joanna L. Kelley
    • , Belen Lorente-Galdos
    • , Krishna R. Veeramah
    • , August E. Woerner
    • , Timothy D. O’Connor
    • , Gabriel Santpere
    • , Alexander Cagan
    • , Christoph Theunert
    • , Ferran Casals
    • , Hafid Laayouni
    • , Kasper Munch
    • , Asger Hobolth
    • , Anders E. Halager
    • , Maika Malig
    • , Jessica Hernandez-Rodriguez
    • , Irene Hernando-Herraez
    • , Kay Prüfer
    • , Marc Pybus
    • , Laurel Johnstone
    • , Michael Lachmann
    • , Can Alkan
    • , Dorina Twigg
    • , Natalia Petit
    • , Carl Baker
    • , Fereydoun Hormozdiari
    • , Marcos Fernandez-Callejo
    • , Marc Dabad
    • , Michael L. Wilson
    • , Laurie Stevison
    • , Cristina Camprubí
    • , Tiago Carvalho
    • , Aurora Ruiz-Herrera
    • , Laura Vives
    • , Marta Mele
    • , Teresa Abello
    • , Ivanela Kondova
    • , Ronald E. Bontrop
    • , Anne Pusey
    • , Felix Lankester
    • , John A. Kiyang
    • , Richard A. Bergl
    • , Elizabeth Lonsdorf
    • , Simon Myers
    • , Mario Ventura
    • , Pascal Gagneux
    • , David Comas
    • , Hans Siegismund
    • , Julie Blanc
    • , Lidia Agueda-Calpena
    • , Marta Gut
    • , Lucinda Fulton
    • , Sarah A. Tishkoff
    • , James C. Mullikin
    • , Richard K. Wilson
    • , Ivo G. Gut
    • , Mary Katherine Gonder
    • , Oliver A. Ryder
    • , Beatrice H. Hahn
    • , Arcadi Navarro
    • , Joshua M. Akey
    • , Jaume Bertranpetit
    • , David Reich
    • , Thomas Mailund
    • , Mikkel H. Schierup
    • , Christina Hvilsom
    • , Aida M. Andrés
    • , Jeffrey D. Wall
    • , Carlos D. Bustamante
    • , Michael F. Hammer
    • , Evan E. Eichler
    •  & Tomas Marques-Bonet
  • Letter |

    In monkeys performing a visual spatial attention task, stimulation of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus and recording of shock-evoked responses from monosynaptically connected primary-visual-cortex neurons shows that attention enhances neuronal communication by increasing the efficacy of presynaptic input, increasing synchronous responses, and by decreasing redundant signals.

    • Farran Briggs
    • , George R. Mangun
    •  & W. Martin Usrey
  • Letter |

    Vascularized, functional human liver is generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by transplantation of liver buds created in vitro (iPSC-LBs); hepatic cells self-organized into three-dimensional iPSC-LBs, and human vasculatures in iPSC-LB transplants became functional by connecting to host vessels, stimulating maturation of iPSC-LBs into tissue resembling adult liver and performing liver-specific functions.

    • Takanori Takebe
    • , Keisuke Sekine
    • , Masahiro Enomura
    • , Hiroyuki Koike
    • , Masaki Kimura
    • , Takunori Ogaeri
    • , Ran-Ran Zhang
    • , Yasuharu Ueno
    • , Yun-Wen Zheng
    • , Naoto Koike
    • , Shinsuke Aoyama
    • , Yasuhisa Adachi
    •  & Hideki Taniguchi
  • Letter |

    Deletion of Ptpn11 in a newly defined mesenchymal progenitor population in the perichondral groove of Ranvier leads to metachondromatosis by increasing Indian hedgehog expression and activating hedgehog signalling, a process that can be reversed with the use of hedgehog pathway inhibitors.

    • Wentian Yang
    • , Jianguo Wang
    • , Douglas C. Moore
    • , Haipei Liang
    • , Mark Dooner
    • , Qian Wu
    • , Richard Terek
    • , Qian Chen
    • , Michael G. Ehrlich
    • , Peter J. Quesenberry
    •  & Benjamin G. Neel
  • Letter |

    An examination of the receptor-binding properties of the H7N9 virus, which has recently emerged in China, shows that the virus has acquired the ability to bind the human α-2,6-linked sialic acid receptor while retaining binding to the avian α-2,3-linked receptor, and therefore does not have the preference for human versus avian receptors characteristic of pandemic viruses.

    • Xiaoli Xiong
    • , Stephen R. Martin
    • , Lesley F. Haire
    • , Stephen A. Wharton
    • , Rodney S. Daniels
    • , Michael S. Bennett
    • , John W. McCauley
    • , Patrick J. Collins
    • , Philip A. Walker
    • , John J. Skehel
    •  & Steven J. Gamblin
  • Letter |

    An initial characterization of the receptor-binding properties of the novel avian influenza A (H7N9) shows that the virus has acquired the ability to bind human receptors while retaining the ability to bind avian receptors; the virus infects epithelial cells in the human lower respiratory tract and type II pneumocytes in the alveoli, and hypercytokinaemia was seen in infected patients.

    • Jianfang Zhou
    • , Dayan Wang
    • , Rongbao Gao
    • , Baihui Zhao
    • , Jingdong Song
    • , Xian Qi
    • , Yanjun Zhang
    • , Yonglin Shi
    • , Lei Yang
    • , Wenfei Zhu
    • , Tian Bai
    • , Kun Qin
    • , Yu Lan
    • , Shumei Zou
    • , Junfeng Guo
    • , Jie Dong
    • , Libo Dong
    • , Ye Zhang
    • , Hejiang Wei
    • , Xiaodan Li
    • , Jian Lu
    • , Liqi Liu
    • , Xiang Zhao
    • , Xiyan Li
    • , Weijuan Huang
    • , Leying Wen
    • , Hong Bo
    • , Li Xin
    • , Yongkun Chen
    • , Cuilin Xu
    • , Yuquan Pei
    • , Yue Yang
    • , Xiaodong Zhang
    • , Shiwen Wang
    • , Zijian Feng
    • , Jun Han
    • , Weizhong Yang
    • , George F. Gao
    • , Guizhen Wu
    • , Dexin Li
    • , Yu Wang
    •  & Yuelong Shu

Corrigendum

Technology Feature

  • Technology Feature |

    Tumours are made up of disparate cell populations that often resist treatment — but understanding this heterogeneity could provide ways to improve chemotherapy.

    • Caitlin Smith

Feature

  • Feature |

    Scientists willing to take a risk are setting up individual research operations in rented lab space.

    • Virginia Gewin

Career Brief

  • Career Brief |

    EU aims to ease migration barriers for researchers and students.

  • Career Brief |

    Follow-up study aims to provide crucial longitudinal data.

  • Career Brief |

    Flaws in papers have become less likely to slip through, says study.

Futures

Brief Communications Arising

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