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Cilia are hair-like organelles that enable cellular locomotion. This Review considers cilia from a dynamical systems perspective, discussing the nonlinear oscillations seen in the single cilia of microorganisms and the emergent topological phenomena seen in the ciliary arrays of animals.
Numerical methods such as the close-coupling, R-matrix and Kohn variational methods have been around for decades, but more recently they have been applied to the treatment of the time-dependent interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atoms and molecules.
Neutron spectroscopy is a powerful probe to study the dynamics in materials. This Technical Review assesses the state-of-the-art experimental spectroscopic methods, which are optimized to provide high energy resolution and can reveal dynamic processes on the picosecond and nanosecond timescales.