Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2019

Volume 3 Issue 7

Imprisonment and future violence

Using data from Michigan, Harding et al. find no credible evidence that prison sentences have an effect on arrests or convictions for violent crimes after release. Imprisonment modestly reduced violence if the analysis included imprisonment’s incapacitation effects.

See: Harding et al.

Image credit: Rawf8 / Alamy Stock Photo. Cover design: Bethany Vukomanovic

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Studies that focus on individual-level decision-making and barriers provide valuable insight into immigrant experiences and have the potential to inform policies and improve outcomes.

Comment & Opinion

  • World View |

    Brazil has a long history of important scientific discoveries that have contributed to the overall wealth and well-being of the country. Paulo Boggio argues that these can only be sustained if the government stops cutting the research and education budget and starts investing in human intellect and science.

    • Paulo Sérgio Boggio
  • Comment |

    Reproducibility and replicability are fundamental requirements of scientific studies. Disagreements over universal definitions for these terms have affected the interpretation of large-scale replication attempts. We provide a visual tool for representing definitions and use it to re-examine these attempts.

    • Prasad Patil
    • , Roger D. Peng
    •  & Jeffrey T. Leek
  • Comment |

    Although low- and middle-income countries experience more adversity, and this is associated with higher rates of mental health problems, most people in these countries cannot access evidence-based mental health care. There are opportunities to implement affordable evidence-based programs in ways that are sustainable in low- and middle-income countries.

    • Richard A. Bryant

Research Highlights

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    How can we improve citizenship rates among low-income immigrants? While reducing costs helps, a new study suggests that an information nudge about eligibility for such fee waivers can result in a significant increase in naturalization applications among low-income individuals in the US.

    • Manuel Pastor
  • News & Views |

    Anxiety, ‘the disease of the 21st century’, is a clinical enigma. Using virtual predators to create real-world threat scenarios, two new studies build on prior rodent-based anxiety theory to map effects of personality and decision complexity in human prefrontal cortex. We may soon have coherent neural maps of these disabling and costly psychiatric disorders.

    • Neil McNaughton
  • News & Views |

    While simple contagions spread efficiently from highly connected ‘influencers’, new research has revealed another kind of spreading process, that of complex contagions, which follows surprisingly different pathways to disperse through social networks.

    • Damon Centola

Reviews

Research

  • Letter |

    Using data from Michigan, Harding et al. find no evidence that prison sentences have an effect on arrests or convictions for violent crimes after release. Imprisonment modestly reduced violence if the analysis included imprisonment’s incapacitation effects.

    • David J. Harding
    • , Jeffrey D. Morenoff
    • , Anh P. Nguyen
    • , Shawn D. Bushway
    •  & Ingrid A. Binswanger
  • Letter |

    By analysing data from more than 4,500 9- to 10-year-olds, Dick et al. found no evidence that bilingual children have an advantage in executive functions, the cognitive abilities that are central to the voluntary control of thoughts and behaviours.

    • Anthony Steven Dick
    • , Nelcida L. Garcia
    • , Shannon M. Pruden
    • , Wesley K. Thompson
    • , Samuel W. Hawes
    • , Matthew T. Sutherland
    • , Michael C. Riedel
    • , Angela R. Laird
    •  & Raul Gonzalez
  • Letter |

    Fung et al. show that participants’ trait anxiety is associated with earlier escape decisions when facing slowly approaching threats. Anxiety correlates with task-driven blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity in the cognitive fear circuits.

    • Bowen J. Fung
    • , Song Qi
    • , Demis Hassabis
    • , Nathaniel Daw
    •  & Dean Mobbs
  • Article |

    How does the number of connections a person has online influence how news spreads? Wang et al. show that users with few connections can sometimes spread news more effectively than well-connected users, resulting in long, dendrite-like diffusion paths and a non-Gaussian distribution of node distances.

    • Xiaochen Wang
    • , Yueheng Lan
    •  & Jinghua Xiao
  • Article |

    Ziegler et al. show that healthy young adults who used a meditation-inspired closed-loop app (MediTrain) for 6 weeks experienced gains in both sustained attention and working memory.

    • David A. Ziegler
    • , Alexander J. Simon
    • , Courtney L. Gallen
    • , Sasha Skinner
    • , Jacqueline R. Janowich
    • , Joshua J. Volponi
    • , Camarin E. Rolle
    • , Jyoti Mishra
    • , Jack Kornfield
    • , Joaquin A. Anguera
    •  & Adam Gazzaley

Amendments & Corrections