Insight |

Quantum software

The advent of fully fledged, universal quantum computers will signify a radical departure from current, silicon-based computing. This Insight looks at several aspects of future quantum computing, including programming languages and compilers for quantum software, fault-tolerant quantum computation, quantum machine-learning algorithms and post-quantum cryptography. Ways of comparing the power of classical and quantum computers and of achieving quantum supremacy are also discussed.


  • Nature | Review Article

    The leading proposals for converting noise-resilient quantum devices from memories to processors are compared, paying attention to the relative resource demands of each.

    • Earl T. Campbell
    • , Barbara M. Terhal
    •  &  Christophe Vuillot
  • Nature | Review Article

    To enable a quantum computer to solve practical problems more efficiently than classical computers, quantum programming languages and compilers are required to translate quantum algorithms into machine code; here the currently available software is reviewed.

    • Frederic T. Chong
    • , Diana Franklin
    •  &  Margaret Martonosi
  • Nature | Review Article

    The era of fully fledged quantum computers threatens to destroy internet security as we know it; the ways in which modern cryptography is developing solutions are reviewed.

    • Daniel J. Bernstein
    •  &  Tanja Lange
  • Nature | Review Article

    Quantum machine learning software could enable quantum computers to learn complex patterns in data more efficiently than classical computers are able to.

    • Jacob Biamonte
    • , Peter Wittek
    • , Nicola Pancotti
    • , Patrick Rebentrost
    • , Nathan Wiebe
    •  &  Seth Lloyd
  • Nature | Review Article

    Proposals for demonstrating quantum supremacy, when a quantum computer supersedes any possible classical computer at a specific task, are reviewed.

    • Aram W. Harrow
    •  &  Ashley Montanaro