Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain
the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in
Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles
Behind every athlete at this year’s Olympic Games stands a team of scientists tasked with ensuring competitors can safely perform to the limit of their ability. From developing training techniques to protecting sporting integrity, science has never been so important in elite sport.
Moderate exercise improves cardiovascular health and is associated with physiological cardiac adaptations; by contrast, the hearts of endurance athletes can undergo maladaptations, including myocardial fibrosis and arrhythmias. In this Review, Parry-Williams and Sharma discuss whether excessive endurance exercise might damage both diseased and otherwise normal hearts.
The planning and execution of goal-directed actions require numerous decisions to be made, from action selection to the continuous refinement of movement plans. Here, Gallivan et al. discuss these sensorimotor decision-making processes and their interactions with mechanisms of action planning and control.