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As bacteria that cause infection adapt to withstand antibiotics, the potential for antimicrobial resistance to cause a global health crisis looms large. Scientists and policymakers are working together to find ways to fight back against this threat.
In this Review, Rotello and colleagues discuss the mechanisms by which nanomaterials can be used to target antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highlight design elements and properties of nanomaterials that can be engineered to enhance potency, and explore recent progress and remaining challenges for clinical implementation of nanomaterials as antimicrobial therapeutics.
Spread of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) bacteria is a global concern, but contributing factors remain unclear. Here, authors analyze distribution of AR bacteria in households from three ethnic groups in Tanzania and find that livelihood factors are more strongly associated with AR prevalence than antibiotic use.
In this Review, the authors describe the evidence for abnormalities in energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in migraine, consider the potential mechanisms and highlight treatments that affect metabolism. They conclude that migraine is a conserved adaptive response that helps to restore brain energy homeostasis.
CRISPR technology is emerging as a potential antimicrobial against antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Here the authors develop a bacteriophage delivered Cas13a system for killing target bacteria and detecting bacterial genes.
During target protection, a resistance protein physically associates with an antibiotic target to rescue the latter from antibiotic-mediated inhibition. In this Review, O’Neill and colleagues describe the different molecular mechanisms underlying target protection and emphasize the importance of this phenomenon as a cause of clinically significant antibiotic resistance.
Urban informal settlements, more commonly known as slums, are hotspots for the environmental transmission of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Here, the authors discuss the behavioural, environmental and structural reasons for this and propose that improvements in water and waste infrastructure, as well as legal and economic incentives, could limit environmental AMR dissemination.