Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are characterized by intense moisture transport, which, on landfall, produce precipitation which can be both beneficial and destructive. ARs in California, for example, are known to have ended drought conditions but also to have caused substantial socio-economic damage from landslides and flooding linked to extreme precipitation. Understanding how AR characteristics will respond to a warming climate is, therefore, vital to the resilience of communities affected by them, such as the western USA, Europe, East Asia and South Africa. In this Review, we use a theoretical framework to synthesize understanding of the dynamic and thermodynamic responses of ARs to anthropogenic warming and connect them to observed and projected changes and impacts revealed by observations and complex models. Evidence suggests that increased atmospheric moisture (governed by Clausius–Clapeyron scaling) will enhance the intensity of AR-related precipitation — and related hydrological extremes — but with changes that are ultimately linked to topographic barriers. However, due to their dependency on both weather and climate-scale processes, which themselves are often poorly constrained, projections are uncertain. To build confidence and improve resilience, future work must focus efforts on characterizing the multiscale development of ARs and in obtaining observations from understudied regions, including the West Pacific, South Pacific and South Atlantic.
Atmospheric rivers are important components of the meridional transport of atmospheric moisture. They influence the hydroclimate of a number of regions in the mid-latitudes.
On land, atmospheric rivers are the source of both beneficial water resources and deleterious hazards (mudslides, floods and, in their absence on longer timescales, droughts).
The robust thermodynamic response of atmospheric moisture to climate change means that future atmospheric rivers will contain more moisture, but circulation changes and potential decreases in their precipitation efficiency must be considered in future impact studies.
At the global scale, much is still unknown about atmospheric rivers, including basic observations of their development, their interaction with large-scale dynamics and their role in short-duration, high-volume melt events over the Arctic and Antarctic.
Future research on the mechanisms driving atmospheric rivers and their life cycles will be a critical advancement for further quantifying their response to climate change.
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L.R.L. and C.A.S. (NCAR via NSF IA 1947282) are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Biological and Environmental Research as part of the Earth and Environmental System Modeling Regional and Global Model Analysis program area. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract DE-AC05-75RL01830. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Cooperative Agreement 1852977. G.V. is supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Institute for Water Resources. A.M.R. is supported by the Scientific Employment Stimulus 2017 from FCT (CEECIND/00027/2017). Atmospheric River Tracking Method Intercomparison Project (ARTMIP) is a grass-roots community effort and has received support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Biological and Environmental Research as part of the Regional and Global Climate Modeling Program, and the Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes at Scripps Institute for Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Payne, A.E., Demory, ME., Leung, L.R. et al. Responses and impacts of atmospheric rivers to climate change. Nat Rev Earth Environ 1, 143–157 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-020-0030-5
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