Wigner crystals — ordered arrays of electrons — have been recently found in various 2D materials, but the first studies of these crystals in 2D electron systems (2DESs) date back from the 1980s. Mansour Shayegan gives a brief history of Wigner crystals and highlights future prospects.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals
Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription
$29.99 / 30 days
cancel any time
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 digital issues and online access to articles
$99.00 per year
only $8.25 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Get just this article for as long as you need it
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
Zhou, Y. et al. Bilayer Wigner crystals in a transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructure. Nature 595, 48–52 (2021).
Smoleński, T. et al. Signatures of Wigner crystal of electrons in a monolayer semiconductor. Nature 595, 53–57 (2021).
Li, H. et al. Imaging two-dimensional generalized Wigner crystals. Nature 597, 650–654 (2021).
Shayegan, M. in Perspectives in Quantum Hall Effects: Novel Quantum Liquids in Low-dimensional Semiconductor Structures (eds Sarma, S. D. & Pinczuk, A.) 343–384 (Wiley, 1996).
Deng, H. et al. Commensurability oscillations of composite fermions induced by the periodic potential of a Wigner crystal. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 096601 (2016).
Zhao, J., Zhang, Y. & Jain, J. K. Crystallization in the fractional quantum Hall regime induced by Landau-level mixing. Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 116802 (2018).
Villegas Rosales, K. A. et al. Competition between fractional quantum Hall liquid and Wigner solid at small fillings: Role of layer thickness and Landau level mixing. Phys. Rev. Res. 3, 013181 (2021).
Shingla, V., Myers, S. A., Pfeiffer, L. N., Baldwin, K. W. & Csathy, G. A. Particle-hole symmetry and the reentrant integer quantum Hall Wigner solid. Commun. Phys. 4, 204 (2021).
Yoon, J., Li, C. C., Shahar, D., Tsui, D. C. & Shayegan, M. Wigner crystallization and metal-insulator transition of two-dimensional holes in GaAs at B = 0. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1744–1747 (1999).
Hossain, M. S. et al. Observation of spontaneous ferromagnetism in a two-dimensional electron system. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 32244 (2020).
The author declares no competing interests.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Shayegan, M. Wigner crystals in flat band 2D electron systems. Nat Rev Phys 4, 212–213 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s42254-022-00444-4
This article is cited by
A highly correlated topological bubble phase of composite fermions
Nature Physics (2023)