A body area sensor network (bodyNET) is a collection of networked sensors that can be used to monitor human physiological signals. For its application in next-generation personalized healthcare systems, seamless hybridization of stretchable on-skin sensors and rigid silicon readout circuits is required. Here, we report a bodyNET composed of chip-free and battery-free stretchable on-skin sensor tags that are wirelessly linked to flexible readout circuits attached to textiles. Our design offers a conformal skin-mimicking interface by removing all direct contacts between rigid components and the human body. Therefore, this design addresses the mechanical incompatibility issue between soft on-skin devices and rigid high-performance silicon electronics. Additionally, we introduce an unconventional radiofrequency identification technology where wireless sensors are deliberately detuned to increase the tolerance of strain-induced changes in electronic properties. Finally, we show that our soft bodyNET system can be used to simultaneously and continuously analyse a person’s pulse, breath and body movement.
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The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.
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This research was supported by Samsung Electronics. X.C. acknowledges financial support from the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) under its AME Programmatic Funding Scheme (project no. A18A1b0045). N.M. acknowledges funding support from an overseas fellowship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). A.S.Y.P., Z.B. and N.M. acknowledge support from Stanford Precision Health and Integrated Diagnosis Center for seed funding support. The authors thank S. Taheri, W. Wang, J. Kim, B. Chu, Y. Zheng, J. Kang, Y. Kim, H.-C. Wu, J. Xu, T. Lei, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, G. Chen, Y. Jiang and B. Murmann for experimental assistance and insightful discussions. The authors also thank Dupont for providing the stretchable conductor inks.
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Supplementary Figs. 1–16, Supplementary Tables 1–2 and Supplementary Notes 1–2.
Display of pulse waves measured from our bodyNET by an oscilloscope.
A demonstration of a bodyNET containing five sensing nodes, including one pulse node, one breathing node and three body movement nodes.
A demonstration of a sensor node with a built-in seven-segment display to measure respiration.
A demonstration of a sensor node located at the neck to measure head movement.
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Nature Electronics (2019)