The immunology of blood: connecting the dots at the neurovascular interface

An Author Correction to this article was published on 07 July 2020

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Katerina Akassoglou recounts how her work on the mechanisms and functions of blood leaks in the brain led to the discovery of fibrin-targeting immunotherapy.

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Fig. 1: Fibrin mechanisms and functions in neuroinflammation.

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  • 07 July 2020

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.


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I am especially grateful to all my current and former laboratory members for their creativity, grit and exceptional contributions. I thank my mentors, collaborators and colleagues for their enthusiasm and continued support. Thanks to Hans Lassmann, Sidney Strickland, Jay L. Degen, George Kollias, Moses V. Chao, Mark A. Petersen and Kathryn Claiborn for critical reading of this manuscript. K.A. is currently supported by NIH/NINDS R35 NS097976, NIH/NIA RF1 AG064926, Department of Defense MS160082, the Dagmar Dolby Family Fund, Edward and Pearl Fein and the Simon Family Trust. Lastly, I am grateful to the University of California, San Diego; Gladstone Institutes; and the University of California, San Francisco for promoting a culture of discovery and innovation.

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Correspondence to Katerina Akassoglou.

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Competing interests

K.A. is the scientific founder and advisor of Therini Bio, Inc. K.A. is an inventor on The Regents of the University of California issued patents US7807645, US8569242, US8877195 and US8980836 covering fibrin antibodies; a co-inventor on The Regents of the University of California and Gladstone Institutes pending patent applications U.S. 15/943,474 and EP 15735033.1 covering fibrin assays of microglia activation; and a co-inventor on Gladstone Institutes issued patent US9669112 covering fibrin in vivo models and US10451611 and pending patent applications U.S. 16/572,365 and EP 15735284.05 covering in vitro fibrin assays. Her interests are managed in accordance with the Gladstone Institutes’ conflict of interest policy.

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Akassoglou, K. The immunology of blood: connecting the dots at the neurovascular interface. Nat Immunol 21, 710–712 (2020).

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