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Reproducible, interactive, scalable and extensible microbiome data science using QIIME 2

An Author Correction to this article was published on 09 August 2019

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Fig. 1: QIIME 2 provides many interactive visualization tools.
Fig. 2: QIIME 2 iteratively records data provenance, ensuring bioinformatics reproducibility.

Data availability

Data for the analyses presented in Fig. 1 are available as follows: Earth Microbiome Project data in Fig. 1a were obtained from, and the American Gut Project (AGP) data were obtained from Qiita ( study ID 10317. Sequence data in Fig. 1b are available in Qiita under study ID 10249 and the EBI under accession number ERP016173. Sequence data in Fig. 1c are available in Qiita under study ID 925 and the EBI under accession number ERP022167. Data in Fig. 1d are available in the q2-ili GitHub repository ( Interactive versions of the Fig. 1 visualizations can be accessed at

Code availability

QIIME 2 is open source and free for all use, including commercial. It is licensed under a BSD three-clause license. Source code is available at Help for QIIME 2 is provided at

Change history

  • 09 August 2019

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.


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QIIME 2 development was primarily funded by NSF Awards 1565100 to J.G.C. and 1565057 to R.K. Partial support was also provided by the following: grants NIH U54CA143925 (J.G.C. and T.P.) and U54MD012388 (J.G.C. and T.P.); grants from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (J.G.C. and R.K.); ERCSTG project MetaPG (N.S.); the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences QYZDB-SSW-SMC021 (Y.B.); the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council APP1085372 (G.A.H., J.G.C., Von Bing Yap and R.K.); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) to D.L.G.; and the State of Arizona Technology and Research Initiative Fund (TRIF), administered by the Arizona Board of Regents, through Northern Arizona University. All NCI coauthors were supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute. S.M.G. and C. Diener were supported by the Washington Research Foundation Distinguished Investigator Award. Thanks to the Yellowstone Center for Resources for research permit no. 5664 to J.R.S. for Yellowstone access and sample collection. We thank P. J. McMurdie for helpful discussion on the relationships between QIIME 2 and phyloseq. We would like to thank the users of QIIME 1 and 2, whose invaluable feedback has shaped QIIME 2. In particular, we would like to thank A. Abdelfattah (Stockholm University, Sweden), R. C. T. Boutin (University of British Columbia, Canada), D. J. Bradshaw II (Florida Atlantic University Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, USA), L. Bullington (MPG Ranch, USA), J. W. Debelius (Karolinska Institutet, Sweden), C. Duvallet (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), E. Korzune Ganda (Cornell University, USA), A. Mahnert (Medical University of Graz, Austria), M. C. Melendrez (St. Cloud State University, USA), D. O’Rourke (University of New Hampshire, USA), A. R. Rivers (USDA ARS, USA), B. Sen (Tianjin University, China), S. Tangedal (Haukeland University Hospital and University of Bergen, Norway), P. J. Torres (San Diego State University, USA) and J. Warren (National Laboratory Service, UK) for writing end-user reviews included in the Supplementary Methods.

Author information




E.B., J.R.R., M.R.D., N.A.B., Y.B., J.E.B., C.J.B., A.M.C.-R., E.K.C., C. Diener, R.D., C.F.E., M. Ernst, M. Estaki, A.G., J.M.G., D.L.G., S.M.G., A.K.J., K.B.K., S.T.K., I.K., T.K., J.L., Y.-X.L., A.V.M., J.L.M., L.F.N., S.B.O., D.P., A.S., S.J.S., A.D.S., L.R.T., P. J. Torres, P. J. Turnbaugh, S.U.-H., F.V., J.W., R.K. and J.G.C. developed documentation, educational materials and/or user/developer support content. E.B., J.R.R., M.R.D., N.A.B., R.K. and J.G.C. wrote the manuscript; all authors assisted with revision of the manuscript. E.B., J.R.R., M.R.D., N.A.B. and J.G.C. designed and developed the QIIME 2 framework. D.M.D., A.G., R.L., E.L., S.C.M., R.S., J.R.S., W.W., C.H.D.W. and R.K. contributed data used in the manuscript and/or testing of QIIME 2. C.C.A., C.T.B., E.K.C., P.C.D., S.H., P.K., E.L., T.P., R.S., E.V., Y.W. and R.K. contributed to the design of analytical methods. E.B., J.R.R., M.R.D., N.A.B., G.A.A.-G., H.A., E.J.A., M.A., F.A., K.B., A.B., B.J.C., J.C., G.M.D., C. Duvallet, M. Ernst, J.F., A.G., K.G., J.G., S.M.G., B.H., H.H., C.H., G.H., S.J., L.J., B.D.K., C.R.K., D.K., J.K., M.G.I.L., C.L., M.M., C.M., B.D.M., D.M., L.J.M., J.T.M., A.T.N., J.A.N.-M., S.L.P., M.L.P., E.P., L.B.R., A.R., M.S.R., P.R., N.S., M.S., P.T., A.T., J.J.J.v.d.H., Y.V.-B., M.V., M.W., K.C.W., A.D.W., Z.Z.X., J.R.Z., Y.Z., Q.Z. and J.G.C. contributed software to QIIME 2 plugins, interfaces, framework and/or build and test systems.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. Gregory Caporaso.

Additional information

Editor’s Note: This paper has been peer-reviewed.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figs. 1–3 and Supplementary Methods

Supplementary File 1

Interactive versions of the visualizations presented in Fig. 1. These can be viewed by using QIIME 2, for example at

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Bolyen, E., Rideout, J.R., Dillon, M.R. et al. Reproducible, interactive, scalable and extensible microbiome data science using QIIME 2. Nat Biotechnol 37, 852–857 (2019).

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