Letter | Published:

Signatures of a jet cocoon in early spectra of a supernova associated with a γ-ray burst

Abstract

Long γ-ray bursts are associated with energetic, broad-lined, stripped-envelope supernovae1,2 and as such mark the death of massive stars. The scarcity of such events nearby and the brightness of the γ-ray burst afterglow, which dominates the emission in the first few days after the burst, have so far prevented the study of the very early evolution of supernovae associated with γ-ray bursts3. In hydrogen-stripped supernovae that are not associated with γ-ray bursts, an excess of high-velocity (roughly 30,000 kilometres per second) material has been interpreted as a signature of a choked jet, which did not emerge from the progenitor star and instead deposited all of its energy in a thermal cocoon4. Here we report multi-epoch spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN 2017iuk, which is associated with the γ-ray burst GRB 171205A. Our spectra display features at extremely high expansion velocities (around 115,000 kilometres per second) within the first day after the burst5,6. Using spectral synthesis models developed for SN 2017iuk, we show that these features are characterized by chemical abundances that differ from those observed in the ejecta of SN 2017iuk at later times. We further show that the high-velocity features originate from the mildly relativistic hot cocoon that is generated by an ultra-relativistic jet within the γ-ray burst expanding and decelerating into the medium that surrounds the progenitor star7,8. This cocoon rapidly becomes transparent9 and is outshone by the supernova emission, which starts to dominate the emission three days after the burst.

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Data availability

The optical spectra obtained with GTC/OSIRIS and VLT/X-shooter are available in the GRBspec repository at http://grbspec.iaa.es. The optical spectra obtained with VLT/X-shooter are also available in the WISEREP repository at https://wiserep.weizmann.ac.il/object/7496. The optical data shown in the plots and tables and the Python codes used for the data analysis are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. The entire photometric dataset is available at https://osf.io/apq3d/. Swift XRT and UVOT data are public (https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/archive.html). The open-source code TARDIS used for the spectrum synthesis is available at https://tardis.readthedocs.io/en/latest/.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge A. S. Esposito for the rendering of the figures presented in this work. L.I. acknowledges support from funding associated with Juan de la Cierva Incorporacion fellowship IJCI-2016-30940. L.I., A.d.U.P., C.C.T. and D.A.K. acknowledge support from the Spanish research project AYA2017-89384-P. A.d.U.P. acknowledges support from funding associated with Ramón y Cajal fellowship RyC-2012-09975. C.C.T. acknowledges support from funding associated with Ramón y Cajal fellowship RyC-2012-09984. D.A.K. acknowledges support from funding associated with Juan de la Cierva Incorporacion fellowship IJCI-2015-26153. K.M. acknowledges support from JSPS Kakenhi grants (18H05223, 18H04585 and 17H02864). S. Schmidl acknowledges support from grant DFG Klose 766/16-3 and discussions with S. Klose. R.L.C.S. acknowledges funding from STFC. M.J.M. acknowledges the support of the National Science Centre, Poland, through POLONEZ grant 2015/19/P/ST9/04010; this project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement number 665778. R.S.-R. acknowledges support from ASI (Italian Space Agency) through contract number 2015-046-R.0 and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 programme under the AHEAD project (grant agreement number 654215). The Cosmic Dawn Center is funded by the DNRF. J.H. was supported by a VILLUM FONDEN Investigator grant (project number 16599). G.L. was supported by a research grant from VILLUM FONDEN (project number 19054). K.E.H. acknowledges support by a Project Grant (162948–051) from The Icelandic Research fund. J.J. and L.K. acknowledge support from NOVA and NWO-FAPESP grant for advanced instrumentation in astronomy.

Author information

L.I., K.M., A.d.U.P., D.A.K., M.D.V., P.S. and C.C.T. wrote the manuscript. L.I., D.A.K. and A.d.U.P. coordinated the follow-up efforts. L.I., main coordination, X-ray and optical data reduction, spectral analysis and SED interpretation. A.d.U.P., GTC spectroscopic data reduction and analysis, discovery of the emerging supernova and the high-velocity components. K.M. and A.S., spectral synthesis modelling and interpretation. A.S.C., supernova data analysis and interpretation. N.R.T., C.C.T. and D.A.K., principal investigators of the VLT and GTC afterglow/GRB-associated supernova proposals with which all spectra were obtained. M.J.M., T.M., K.K., T.K. and M.K., planning and analysis of the RBT/PST2 observations. J.S. and J.J., VLT data reduction and analysis. K.E.H. and D.B.M. led and planned the NOT observations. P.S. and S. Schmidl contributed to UVOT and GROND data analysis and interpretation. R.L.C.S. contributed to X-ray data analysis and interpretation. D.S., K.U. and R.L.C.S. planned and analysed the GOTO observations. L.I., A.d.U.P., D.A.K., C.C.T., M.D.V., K.B., J.B., S. Campana, Z.C., S. Covino, J.P.U.F., D.H.H., K.E.H., J.H., L.K., C.K., G.L., A.J.L., D.B.M., G.P., S.P., A.R., R.S.-R., S. Schulze, D.S., N.R.T., S.D.V. and K.W. contributed to observation strategy and planning for X-shooter observations. All authors contributed to the discussion and presentation of the results and reviewed the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Correspondence to L. Izzo.

Extended data figures and tables

  1. Extended Data Fig. 1 Early evolution of the colour index.

    The evolution of the ub, bv, uvw1 − u and uvw2 − uvw1 colour indices, computed from UVOT data in the first 18 days after the GRB trigger. Error bars represent 1 s.d.

  2. Extended Data Fig. 2 Modelling the SEDs.

    SEDs for the epochs at TSED1 = 0.003 days and TSED2 = 0.06 days (top), TSED3 = 0.17 days and TSED4 = 0.55 days (middle), and TSED5 = 0.97 days and TSED6 = 1.97 days (bottom). All datasets use photometric data points obtained with Swift UVOT for the low-energy part of the spectrum (red). Error bars represent 1 s.d. Faint dotted lines represent the entire spectral model used, in flux density (Fv) units. The SED is complemented with VLT/X-shooter at day 0.06 (green) and GTC/OSIRIS spectra at day 0.97 and day 1.97 (red), whereas for the X-ray energy range we built specific Swift XRT spectra (black). An additional spectrum is shown in the top-left panel (black data) together with the best-fit results obtained for the Swift windowed-timing (WT) mode spectrum computed at 0.003 days using a black body plus power-law spectral model (solid line).

  3. Extended Data Fig. 3 Evolution of the light curve of SN 2017iuk.

    Evolution of the BVRCIC magnitude of SN 2017iuk as observed with the RBT/PST2 telescope. Coloured curves represent the interpolation functions used to estimate the peak brightness. Error bars represent 1 s.d.

  4. Extended Data Fig. 4 SN 2017iuk versus SN 1998bw and SN 2006aj.

    Evolution of the V (green) and RC (red) absolute magnitudes for SN 2017iuk (symbols), as observed from the NOT, OSN, RBT/PST2, GOTO and smaller telescopes (iTelescope, OASDG). The evolution in the first 30 days of SN 1998bw (dashed curves) and SN 2006aj (dot-dashed curves) are also shown, considering a common rest-frame time interval. Error bars represent 1 s.d.

  5. Extended Data Fig. 5 Spectrum of GRB 171205A/ SN 2017iuk obtained 1.5 h after the GRB detection.

    This spectrum was obtained with VLT/X-shooter in the range 3,200–19,000 Å. The inset shows the UVB arm (3,200–5,500 Å), where the emission excess at wavelengths up to 4,000 Å and a possible absorption feature at about 3,700 Å are shown.

  6. Extended Data Fig. 6 Spectroscopic evolution of SN 2017iuk in the NIR.

    Grey regions indicate telluric features in the spectra. The possible He i λ10830/Mg ii λ10914 feature is visible in the day-21 spectrum, while the Ca ii triplet shows a P-Cygni profile at bluer wavelengths.

  7. Extended Data Table 1 Log of the spectroscopic observations
  8. Extended Data Table 2 Fit results of the SEDs built from GROND, Swift UVOT and XRT data
  9. Extended Data Table 3 Model parameters
  10. Extended Data Table 4 Elemental abundances obtained from the synthesis model as a function of the expansion velocity

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Further reading

Fig. 1: Multi-wavelength evolution of the GRB 171205A/SN 2017iuk emission.
Fig. 2: Optical and X-ray spectral modelling of the early emission of SN 2017iuk.
Fig. 3: Evolution of the ejecta velocities.
Fig. 4: Chemical composition of the supernova ejecta.
Extended Data Fig. 1: Early evolution of the colour index.
Extended Data Fig. 2: Modelling the SEDs.
Extended Data Fig. 3: Evolution of the light curve of SN 2017iuk.
Extended Data Fig. 4: SN 2017iuk versus SN 1998bw and SN 2006aj.
Extended Data Fig. 5: Spectrum of GRB 171205A/ SN 2017iuk obtained 1.5 h after the GRB detection.
Extended Data Fig. 6: Spectroscopic evolution of SN 2017iuk in the NIR.

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