Incidence and mortality disparities between males and females exist in many diseases including bladder cancer, but the mechanisms remain unclear. To adequately address this issue, researchers must design experiments appropriately, appreciate that sex and gender are not synonymous concepts and understand that the role of both sex and gender in disease need to be elucidated.
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X.L., D.T. and Z.L. are supported by NIH grants. Z.L. sits on the scientific advisory boards for Alphamab, Henlius, Ikonisys, Heat Biologics and HanchorBio.
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Theodorescu, D., Li, Z. & Li, X. Sex differences in bladder cancer: emerging data and call to action. Nat Rev Urol 19, 447–449 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41585-022-00591-4