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Tailoring inorganic–polymer composites for the mass production of solid-state batteries

Abstract

Solid-state batteries (SSBs) have recently been revived to increase the energy density and eliminate safety concerns associated with conventional Li-ion batteries with flammable liquid electrolytes. To achieve large-scale, low-cost production of SSBs as soon as possible, it would be advantageous to modify the mature manufacturing platform, involving slurry casting and roll-to-roll technologies, used for conventional Li-ion batteries for application to SSBs. However, the manufacturing of SSBs depends on the development of suitable solid electrolytes. Inorganic–polymer composite electrolytes combine the advantages of inorganic and polymer solid electrolytes, making them particularly suitable for the mass production of SSBs. In this Review, we discuss the properties of solid electrolytes comprising inorganic–polymer composites and outline the design of composite electrolytes for realizing high-performance devices. We also assess the challenges of integrating the composite electrolytes into batteries, which will enable the mass production of SSBs.

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Fig. 1: Production processes for Li-ion batteries.
Fig. 2: Ion transport in inorganic–polymer composite electrolytes.
Fig. 3: Stability of inorganic–polymer composite electrolytes.
Fig. 4: Inorganic–polymer composite cathodes and anodes.
Fig. 5: Interfaces between electrode and inorganic–polymer composite electrolyte layers.
Fig. 6: Fabrication of solid-state batteries with inorganic–polymer composite electrolytes.

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Acknowledgements

C.-W.N. and L.-Z.F. acknowledge support from the Basic Science Center Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under grant nos. 51788104 and 51532002. The authors are grateful to L. Chen, Y. Liang, X. Liu, G. Wang, F. Liu and J. Yi for help with the drawing of graphics.

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All authors contributed to the discussion of content, and writing and editing of the article prior to submission. C.-W.N. conceived the outline and L.-Z.F. researched the data.

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Correspondence to Ce-Wen Nan.

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H.H. is employed at Qingtao Energy Development Inc., which develops and commercializes solid-state batteries. C.-W.N. is one of the co-founders of Qingtao. L.-Z.F. declares no competing interests.

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Fan, LZ., He, H. & Nan, CW. Tailoring inorganic–polymer composites for the mass production of solid-state batteries. Nat Rev Mater 6, 1003–1019 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41578-021-00320-0

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