In a meta-analysis of 21 randomized clinical trials including a total of 83,291 patients, vitamin D supplementation was not associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events or death. Only four of the trials included in the meta-analysis had cardiovascular disease (CVD) as a prespecified primary end point. The rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (the primary end point of the meta-analysis) was not reduced with vitamin D supplementation compared with placebo (risk ratio (RR) 1.00). Furthermore, vitamin D was not associated with significant reductions in any of the secondary end points: myocardial infarction (RR 1.00), stroke (RR 1.06), CVD mortality (RR 0.98) or all-cause mortality (RR 0.97). “The findings suggest that vitamin D supplementation does not confer cardiovascular protection and is not indicated for this purpose,” conclude the researchers.