Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Wafer-scale monolithic integration of full-colour micro-LED display using MoS2 transistor


Large-scale growth of transition metal dichalcogenides and their subsequent integration with compound semiconductors is one of the major obstacles for two-dimensional materials implementation in optoelectronics applications such as active matrix displays or optical sensors. Here we present a novel transition metal dichalcogenide-on-compound-semiconductor fabrication method that is compatible with a batch microfabrication process. We show how a thin film of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) can be directly synthesized on a gallium-nitride-based epitaxial wafer to form a thin film transistor array. Subsequently, the MoS2 thin film transistor was monolithically integrated with micro-light-emitting-diode (micro-LED) devices to produce an active matrix micro-LED display. In addition, we demonstrate a simple approach to obtain red and green colours through the printing of quantum dots on a blue micro-LED, which allows for the scalable fabrication of full-colour micro-LED displays. This strategy represents a promising route to attain heterogeneous integration, which is essential for high-performance optoelectronic systems that can incorporate the established semiconductor technology and emerging two-dimensional materials.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Monolithic integration of MoS2 transistor and GaN-based full-colour micro-LED display.
Fig. 2: Optical and electrical properties of the bilayer MoS2 grown on the GaN wafer.
Fig. 3: Batch fabrication of MoS2-TFT-integrated micro-LEDs and their electrical properties.
Fig. 4: The operation of full-colour active matrix micro-LED display using MoS2 TFT and QDs.

Data availability

The data that support the plots within these paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Source data are provided with this paper.


  1. Pust, P., Schmidt, P. J. & Schnick, W. A revolution in lighting. Nat. Mater. 14, 454–458 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Schubert, E. F. & Kim, J. K. Solid-state light sources getting smart. Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Zhang, H. & Rogers, J. A. Recent advances in flexible inorganic light emitting diodes: from materials design to integrated optoelectronic platforms. Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800936 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Choi, M. et al. Stretchable active matrix inorganic light-emitting diode display enabled by overlay-aligned roll-transfer printing. Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1606005 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Kim, H.-S. et al. Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 10072–10077 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Park, S.-I. et al. Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays. Science 325, 977–981 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Jariwala, D., Marks, T. J. & Hersam, M. C. Mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures. Nat. Mater. 16, 170–181 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kong, W. et al. Polarity governs atomic interaction through two-dimensional materials. Nat. Mater. 17, 999–1004 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kim, Y. et al. Remote epitaxy through graphene enables two-dimensional material-based layer transfer. Nature 544, 340–343 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Chung, K., Lee, C.-H. & Yi, G.-C. Transferable GaN layers grown on ZnO-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices. Science 330, 655–657 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Li, Y. et al. 48 × 48 pixelated addressable full-color micro display based on flip-chip micro LEDs. Appl. Opt. 58, 8383–8389 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Peng, D., Zhang, K. & Liu, Z. Design and fabrication of fine-pitch pixelated-addressed micro-LED arrays on printed circuit board for display and communication applications. IEEE J. Electron Devices Soc. 5, 90–94 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bower, C. A. et al. Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 μm × 15 μm inorganic light-emitting diodes. Photon. Res. 5, A23–A29 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Jain, N. et al. More than microLEDs: mass transfer of pixel engines for emissive displays. Dig. Tech. Pap. 51, 642–645 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Cok, R. S. et al. Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing. J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25, 589–609 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Yang, S. Y. et al. Elastomer surfaces with directionally dependent adhesion strength and their use in transfer printing with continuous roll-to-roll applications. Adv. Mater. 24, 2117–2122 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Park, S.-C. et al. Millimeter thin and rubber-like solid-state lighting modules fabricated using roll-to-roll fluidic self-assembly and lamination. Adv. Mater. 27, 3661–3668 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Seo, S.-Y. et al. Writing monolithic integrated circuits on a two-dimensional semiconductor with a scanning light probe. Nat. Electron. 1, 512–517 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Wang, Y. et al. Field-effect transistors made from solution-grown two-dimensional tellurene. Nat. Electron. 1, 228–236 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Goossens, S. et al. Broadband image sensor array based on graphene–CMOS integration. Nat. Photon. 11, 366–371 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Lin, Z. et al. Solution-processable 2D semiconductors for high-performance large-area electronics. Nature 562, 254–258 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Chen, K.-J. et al. Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method. Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kang, K. et al. High-mobility three-atom-thick semiconducting films with wafer-scale homogeneity. Nature 520, 656–660 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Shinde, S. M. et al. Surface-functionalization-mediated direct transfer of molybdenum disulfide for large-area flexible devices. Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1706231 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Youn, C. et al. Influence of various activation temperatures on the optical degradation of Mg doped InGaN/GaN MQW blue LEDs. J. Cryst. Growth 250, 331–338 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hums, C. et al. Fabry-Perot effects in InGaN/GaN heterostructures on Si-substrate. J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033113 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Reshchikov, M. A. & Morkoç, H. Luminescence properties of defects in GaN. J. Appl. Phys. 97, 061301 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Li, H. et al. From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering. Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Feng, Z. C. Micro-Raman scattering and micro-photoluminescence of GaN thin films grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Opt. Eng. 41, 2022–2031 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Liu, Z. J. et al. Monolithic integration of AlGaN/GaN HEMT on LED by MOCVD. IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 330–332 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Wan, Y. et al. Epitaxial single-layer MoS2 on GaN with enhanced valley helicity. Adv. Mater. 30, 1703888 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Ruzmetov, D. et al. Vertical 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructures based on epitaxial molybdenum disulfide and gallium nitride. ACS Nano 10, 3580–3588 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Choi, M. et al. Flexible active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display enabled by MoS2 thin-film transistor. Sci. Adv. 4, eaas8721 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Schauble, K. et al. Uncovering the effects of metal contacts on monolayer MoS2. ACS Nano 14, 14798–14808 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea, funded by the Korean government (the Ministry of Science and ICT; NRF-2015R1A3A2066337) and the Yonsei Signature Research Cluster Program.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



J.-H.A. planned and supervised the project. S.H. and L.H. conducted most of the experiments regarding the device fabrication and characterized the optoelectronic properties of the devices. A.T.H synthesized the MoS2 on the GaN wafer, and J.Y.C. supported the experiments. All authors analysed the data and wrote the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jong-Hyun Ahn.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Peer review

Peer review information

Nature Nanotechnology thanks the anonymous reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figs. 1–23 and Tables 1 and 2.

Supplementary Video 1

Active matrix micro-LED display by use of MoS2 transistor.

Supplementary Video 2

A 100 ppi active matrix micro-LED display on a 2 inch sapphire substrate.

Supplementary Video 3

A 508 ppi active matrix micro-LED display.

Supplementary Video 4

Full-colour active matrix micro-LED display.

Source data

Source Data Fig. 1

Optical properties of MoS2.

Source Data Fig. 2

Optical and electrical properties of MoS2.

Source Data Fig. 3

Electrical properties of MoS2-TFT-integrated micro-LED.

Source Data Fig. 4

Electrical properties of MoS2-TFT-integrated micro-LED.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hwangbo, S., Hu, L., Hoang, A.T. et al. Wafer-scale monolithic integration of full-colour micro-LED display using MoS2 transistor. Nat. Nanotechnol. 17, 500–506 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Find nanotechnology articles, nanomaterial data and patents all in one place. Visit Nano by Nature Research