Notwithstanding the numerous density functional studies on the chemically induced transformation of multilayer graphene into a diamond-like film carried out to date, a comprehensive convincing experimental proof of such a conversion is still lacking. We show that the fluorination of graphene sheets in Bernal (AB)-stacked bilayer graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition on a single-crystal CuNi(111) surface triggers the formation of interlayer carbon–carbon bonds, resulting in a fluorinated diamond monolayer (‘F-diamane’). Induced by fluorine chemisorption, the phase transition from (AB)-stacked bilayer graphene to single-layer diamond was studied and verified by X-ray photoelectron, UV photoelectron, Raman, UV-Vis and electron energy loss spectroscopies, transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations.
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The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.
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We acknowledge support from the Institute for Basic Science (IBS-R019-D1).
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Nanotechnology thanks Rolf Erni and Anirudha Sumant for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Bakharev, P.V., Huang, M., Saxena, M. et al. Chemically induced transformation of chemical vapour deposition grown bilayer graphene into fluorinated single-layer diamond. Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 59–66 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-019-0582-z
Uspekhi Fizicheskih Nauk (2021)