Next-generation structural materials are expected to be lightweight, high-strength and tough composites with embedded functionalities to sense, adapt, self-repair, morph and restore. This Review highlights recent developments and concepts in bioinspired nanocomposites, emphasizing tailoring of the architecture, interphases and confinement to achieve dynamic and synergetic responses. We highlight cornerstone examples from natural materials with unique mechanical property combinations based on relatively simple building blocks produced in aqueous environments under ambient conditions. A particular focus is on structural hierarchies across multiple length scales to achieve multifunctionality and robustness. We further discuss recent advances, trends and emerging opportunities for combining biological and synthetic components, state-of-the-art characterization and modelling approaches to assess the physical principles underlying nature-inspired design and mechanical responses at multiple length scales. These multidisciplinary approaches promote the synergetic enhancement of individual materials properties and an improved predictive and prescriptive design of the next era of structural materials at multilength scales for a wide range of applications.
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We acknowledge support from multiple sources: D.N., the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFSOR), 18RXCOR060 and 22RXCOR014; K.D., ONR, N00014-18-1-2528; M.R.B., AFOSR, FA8650-19-2-5209; M.J.B., AFOSR, FATE MURI FA9550-15-1-0514; L.C.H., Office of Naval Research Global, N62909-18-1-2024; S.Keten, PECASE Award ONR, N00014-16-1-3175; G.C.S., Center for Bio-Inspired Energy Sciences (CBES), an Energy Frontiers Research Center (EFRC), under DE-SC0000989; V.V.T., Air Force Research Laboratory, FA8650-16-D-5404, AFOSR, FA9550-20-1-0305 and NSF-ECCS 2203806; L.C.B., AFOSR, FA9550-18-1-0381; J.A.E., NSF Career Award, CMMI 1454072; P.V.C., Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, EP/R029598/1; H.H., NSF CMMI 1940335, NSF OAC 1931587, and NASA Space Technology Research Institute, STRI-NNX17AJ32G.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Nepal, D., Kang, S., Adstedt, K.M. et al. Hierarchically structured bioinspired nanocomposites. Nat. Mater. 22, 18–35 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-022-01384-1