Comparing meta-analyses and preregistered multiple-laboratory replication projects


Many researchers rely on meta-analysis to summarize research evidence. However, there is a concern that publication bias and selective reporting may lead to biased meta-analytic effect sizes. We compare the results of meta-analyses to large-scale preregistered replications in psychology carried out at multiple laboratories. The multiple-laboratory replications provide precisely estimated effect sizes that do not suffer from publication bias or selective reporting. We searched the literature and identified 15 meta-analyses on the same topics as multiple-laboratory replications. We find that meta-analytic effect sizes are significantly different from replication effect sizes for 12 out of the 15 meta-replication pairs. These differences are systematic and, on average, meta-analytic effect sizes are almost three times as large as replication effect sizes. We also implement three methods of correcting meta-analysis for bias, but these methods do not substantively improve the meta-analytic results.

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Fig. 1: PRISMA flow diagram showing the number of meta-analyses considered for inclusion.
Fig. 2: Results of meta-analyses and replication studies.
Fig. 3: Mean effect size difference across the 15 meta-replication pairs in our sample, and robustness test and sub-group analyses of this difference.
Fig. 4: Comparison of effect sizes of the original studies replicated in the replication studies to meta-analytic effect sizes.
Fig. 5: Results for methods of correcting meta-analyses for bias.
Fig. 6: Estimated differences in meta-analytic and replication studies effect sizes for methods of correcting meta-analyses for bias.

Data availability

The data used in this paper are posted at the project’s OSF repository (link:

Code availability

The analysis code for all analyses are available at the project’s OSF repository (link:


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For financial support we thank J. Wallander and the Tom Hedelius Foundation (grant no. P2015-0001:1), the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences (grant no. NHS14-1719:1) and the Meltzer Fund in Bergen. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

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A.K., E.S. and M.J. designed research and wrote the paper. A.K. and E.S. collected and analysed data. All authors approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Magnus Johannesson.

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Kvarven, A., Strømland, E. & Johannesson, M. Comparing meta-analyses and preregistered multiple-laboratory replication projects. Nat Hum Behav (2019).

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