Nudges for influenza vaccination

Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Nudges are small changes to the environment or choice architecture that can be designed to significantly increase influenza vaccination rates.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Ladder of nudge interventions to increase vaccination rates.


  1. 1.

    Influenza vaccination coverage. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (accessed 1 August 2018).

  2. 2.

    Lau, D. et al. Ann. Fam. Med. 10, 538–546 (2012).

  3. 3.

    Thaler, R. H. & Sunstein, C. R. Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (Penguin Books, New York, 2009).

  4. 4.

    Patel, M. S., Volpp, K. G. & Asch, D. A. N. Engl. J. Med. 378, 214–216 (2018).

  5. 5.

    Yokum, D., Lauffenburger, J. C., Ghazinouri, R. & Choudhry, N. K. Nat. Hum. Behav. (2018).

  6. 6.

    Thomas, R. E., Russell, M. L. & Lorenzetti, D. L. Vaccine 28, 1684–1701 (2010).

  7. 7.

    Milkman, K. L., Beshears, J., Choi, J. J., Laibson, D. & Madrian, B. C. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 10415–10420 (2011).

  8. 8.

    Halpern, S. D., Ubel, P. A. & Asch, D. A. N. Engl. J. Med. 357, 1340–1344 (2007).

  9. 9.

    Patel, M. S. et al. JAMA Intern. Med. 176, 847–848 (2016).

  10. 10.

    Chapman, G. B., Li, M., Colby, H. & Yoon, H. JAMA 304, 43–44 (2010).

  11. 11.

    Aysola, J. et al. Am. J. Health Promot. 32, 745–752 (2018).

  12. 12.

    Public Health: Ethical Issues Ch. 3 (Nuffield Council on Bioethics, London, 2007);

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Mitesh S. Patel.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

M.S.P. is founder of Catalyst Health, a technology and behaviour change consulting firm, and is on the medical advisory board for Healthmine Services, and Holistic Industries.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Patel, M.S. Nudges for influenza vaccination. Nat Hum Behav 2, 720–721 (2018).

Download citation

Further reading