All-solid-state zinc–air pouch cells promise high energy-to-cost ratios with inherent safety; however, finding earth-abundant high power/energy cathodes and super-ionic electrolytes remains a fundamental challenge. Here we present realistic zinc–air pouch cells designed by the (101)-facet copper phosphosulfide [CPS(101)] as a cathode as well as anti-freezing chitosan-biocellulosics as super-ionic conductor electrolytes. The proposed CPS(101) exhibits trifunctional activity and stability (>30,000 cycles) towards reversible oxygen reactions and hydrogen evolution reactions, outperforming commercial Pt/C and RuO2. Furthermore, hydroxide super-ion conductors utilizing polymerized chitosan-biocellulosics reveal exceptional conductivity (86.7 mS cm−1 at 25 °C) with high mechanical/chemical robustness. High cell-level energy densities of 460 Wh kgcell–1/1,389 Wh l−1 are normally measured in pouch cells (1 Ah) with a cycle lifespan of 6,000/1,100 cycles at 25 mA cm−2 for 20/70% depths of discharge, and the highest densities we could achieve were 523 Wh kgcell–1/1,609 Wh l−1. Flexible pouch cells operate well at rates of 5–200 mA cm−2 over a broad temperature range of −20 to 80 °C.
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This work was supported by the Creative Materials Discovery Program (grant no. 2018M3D1A1057844) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT. S.U.L. thanks the Basic Science Research Program through the NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (grant no. 2018R1A2B6006320).
The Republic of Korea patents related to this work have been filed (KR10-2020-0021252, KR 10-2020-0021253, KR 10-2020-0021894, KR 10-2020-0164652, KR 10-2020-0164653, KR 10-2020-0164654, KR 10-2020-0164655, KR 10-2020-0164656, KR 10-2020-0164657, KR 10-2021-0008626, KR 10-2021-0008627, KR 10-2021-0023680, KR 10-2021-0023682). The PCT patents to the work have also been filed (PCT/KR2021/002214, PCT/KR2021/002215, PCT/KR2021/002216, PCT/KR2021/002217, PCT/KR2021/002218).
Peer review information Nature Energy thanks Yuan Chen and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Supplementary Figs. 1–87, Notes 1–7, Tables 1–14 and Supplementary Methods.
Smartphone charging under flexible conditions.
LED illumination under flexible conditions.
LED illumination at 0 °C temperature.
OER CV stability and battery cycling after mechanical tests.
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Shinde, S.S., Jung, J.Y., Wagh, N.K. et al. Ampere-hour-scale zinc–air pouch cells. Nat Energy 6, 592–604 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-021-00807-8