Since reaching 20% efficiency, research in perovskite photovoltaics has shifted from a race for efficiency to a race for stability. For efficiency, the standard test conditions set the rules for the race. However, the term ‘stability’ is used very broadly and assessed in various ways, meaning different groups are running different races. For the application, only energy yields that can be achieved under real-world, long-term operation matter. Here, we characterize and analyse the performance of an efficient perovskite solar cell (PSC) under simulated ambient conditions based on real temperature and irradiance data from selected days over one year at a location in central Europe. We find that the PSC shows only a low decrease of efficiency with elevated temperature and low light intensity, maintaining almost optimum values for ambient conditions, under which most of the solar energy is incident on the solar cell. The overall energy yield differs from what is expected from standard test condition measurements and is influenced by reversible degradation (delivering the highest performance in the morning) and by a slight permanent degradation that is observable during the year. With reference to tandem cells, we compare the PSC with a silicon device.
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The data (weather data and measured efficiencies of two PSCs and two SHJs) that support Figs. 1–5 are available in Supplementary Data 1, along with data from initial J–V scans. Any other data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.
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We thank R. Monnard, B. Niessen and M. Boccard from PV-Lab Neuchâtel for providing the SHJs. We acknowledge the Swiss Federal Office MeteoSwiss for making the weather data available. W.T. acknowledges funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation through an Ambizione Energy fellowship. E.A.A. and M.G. acknowledge King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology for financial support under a joint research project.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Tress, W., Domanski, K., Carlsen, B. et al. Performance of perovskite solar cells under simulated temperature-illumination real-world operating conditions. Nat Energy 4, 568–574 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-019-0400-8
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