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Performance of perovskite solar cells under simulated temperature-illumination real-world operating conditions


Since reaching 20% efficiency, research in perovskite photovoltaics has shifted from a race for efficiency to a race for stability. For efficiency, the standard test conditions set the rules for the race. However, the term ‘stability’ is used very broadly and assessed in various ways, meaning different groups are running different races. For the application, only energy yields that can be achieved under real-world, long-term operation matter. Here, we characterize and analyse the performance of an efficient perovskite solar cell (PSC) under simulated ambient conditions based on real temperature and irradiance data from selected days over one year at a location in central Europe. We find that the PSC shows only a low decrease of efficiency with elevated temperature and low light intensity, maintaining almost optimum values for ambient conditions, under which most of the solar energy is incident on the solar cell. The overall energy yield differs from what is expected from standard test condition measurements and is influenced by reversible degradation (delivering the highest performance in the morning) and by a slight permanent degradation that is observable during the year. With reference to tandem cells, we compare the PSC with a silicon device.

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Data availability

The data (weather data and measured efficiencies of two PSCs and two SHJs) that support Figs. 15 are available in Supplementary Data 1, along with data from initial JV scans. Any other data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.


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We thank R. Monnard, B. Niessen and M. Boccard from PV-Lab Neuchâtel for providing the SHJs. We acknowledge the Swiss Federal Office MeteoSwiss for making the weather data available. W.T. acknowledges funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation through an Ambizione Energy fellowship. E.A.A. and M.G. acknowledge King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology for financial support under a joint research project.

Author information

W.T. designed the study and wrote the manuscript. W.T., K.D. and A.A. performed the experiment and analysed the data. B.C. further analysed the data and prepared the figures. A.A. prepared the weather data. E.A.A. fabricated the PSCs. K.D., B.C. and A.A. contributed to discussions and writing. M.G. and A.H. supervised the students.

Correspondence to Wolfgang Tress.

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Figures

Supplementary Figs. 1–12

Reporting Summary

Supplementary Data 1

Data for two SHJs and two PSCs presented in the study.

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Further reading

Fig. 1: Dependence of performance on light intensity and temperature for the SHJ and PSC.
Fig. 2: Accumulated and averaged performance data as a function of temperature and light intensity over 24 d from a 1-year period.
Fig. 3: Averaged performance on 24 selected days over a 1-year period.
Fig. 4: Degradation as a function of light intensity and temperature for the PSC.
Fig. 5: Reversible losses for the PSC.