Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Embrace your defects

Control of electron and hole concentrations in semiconductors is a longstanding challenge. Now, by managing defect populations, a p–n homojunction solar cell has been fabricated, opening a new avenue for metal halide perovskite devices.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Control of defect concentrations in metal halide perovskites.


  1. Yu, P. & Cardona, M. Fundamentals of Semiconductors (Springer, Berlin, 2010).

  2. Walsh, A. & Zunger, A. Nat. Mater. 16, 964–967 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Park, J.-S. et al. Nat. Rev. Mater. 3, 194–210 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Stoumpos, C. C. et al. Chem. Mater. 52, 9019–9038 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  5. Senocrate, A. et al. Solid State Ion. 321, 69–74 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Zohar, A. et al. ACS Energy Lett. 2, 2408–2414 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Cui, P. et al. Nat. Energy (2019).

  8. Eames, C. et al. Nat. Commun. 6, 7497 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kim, G. Y. Nat. Mater. 17, 445–449 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Battaglia, C. et al. Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 1552–1576 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Aron Walsh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Park, JS., Walsh, A. Embrace your defects. Nat Energy 4, 95–96 (2019).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing