The poor performance of lithium-ion batteries in extreme temperatures is hindering their wider adoption in the energy sector. A fundamental challenge in battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) is that hot and cold environments pose opposite requirements: thermal transmission at high temperature for battery cooling, and thermal isolation at low temperature to retain the batteries’ internally generated heat, leading to an inevitable compromise of either hot or cold performances. Here, we demonstrate a thermal regulator that adjusts its thermal conductance as a function of the temperature, just as desired for the BTMS. Without any external logic control, this thermal regulator increases battery capacity by a factor of 3 at an ambient temperature (Tambient) of −20 °C in comparison to a baseline BTMS that is always thermally conducting, while also limiting the battery temperature rise to 5 °C in a very hot environment (Tambient = 45 °C) to ensure safety. The result expands the usability of lithium-ion batteries in extreme environments and opens up new applications of thermally functional devices.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $4.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Dunn, B., Kamath, H. & Tarascon, J. M. Electrical energy storage for the grid: a battery of choices. Science 334, 928–935 (2011).
Nykvist, B. & Nilsson, M. Rapidly falling costs of battery packs for electric vehicles. Nat. Clim. Change 5, 329–332 (2015).
Chu, S., Cui, Y. & Liu, N. The path towards sustainable energy. Nat. Mater. 16, 16–22 (2017).
Yuksel, T. & Michalek, J. J. Effects of regional temperature on electric vehicle efficiency, range, and emissions in the United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49, 3974–3980 (2015).
Wang, Q., Jiang, B., Li, B. & Yan, Y. A critical review of thermal management models and solutions of lithium-ion batteries for the development of pure electric vehicles. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 64, 106–128 (2016).
Pesaran, A. A., Santhanagopalan, S. & Kim, G. H. Addressing the impact of temperature extremes on large format Li-ion batteries for vehicle applications. 30th Int. Battery Seminar PR-5400-58145 (2013).
Keyser, M. et al. Enabling fast charging–battery thermal considerations. J. Power Sources 367, 228–236 (2017).
Ebner, M., Marone, F., Stampanoni, M. & Wood, V. Visualization and quantification of electrochemical and mechanical degradation in Li ion batteries. Science 342, 716–720 (2013).
Leng, F., Tan, C. M. & Pecht, M. Effect of temperature on the aging rate of Li ion battery operating above room temperature. Sci. Rep. 5, 12967 (2015).
Jaguemont, J., Boulon, L. & Dubé, Y. A comprehensive review of lithium-ion batteries used in hybrid and electric vehicles at cold temperatures. Appl. Energy 164, 99–114 (2016).
Maximizing Battery Life and Lifespan (Apple, accessed 1 March 2018); https://www.apple.com/batteries/maximizing-performance
Arguez, A. et al. NOAA’s 1981–2010 US climate normals: an overview. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 93, 1687–1697 (2012).
Ji, Y. & Wang, C. Y. Heating strategies for Li-ion batteries operated from subzero temperatures. Electrochim. Acta 107, 664–674 (2013).
Wang, C. Y. et al. Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures. Nature 529, 515 (2016).
Zhang, G. et al. Rapid restoration of electric vehicle battery performance while driving at cold temperatures. J. Power Sources 371, 35–40 (2017).
Buford, K., Williams, J. & Simonini, M. Determining Most Energy Efficient Cooling Control Strategy of a Rechargeable Energy Storage System Report 0148-7191 (SAE Technical Paper, 2011).
Novak, K. S., Phillips, C. J., Sunada, E. T. & Kinsella, G. M. Mars Exploration Rover Surface Mission Flight Thermal Performance Report 0148-7191 (SAE Technical Paper, 2005).
Ando, M., Shinozaki, K., Okamoto, A., Sugita, H. & Nohara, T. Development of mechanical heat switch for future space missions. Proc. 44th Int. Conf. Environ. Syst. (2014).
Shu, Q., Demko, J. & Fesmire, J. Heat switch technology for cryogenic thermal management. IOP Conference Series Mater. Sci. Engin. 012133 (IOP Publishing, 2017).
Wehmeyer, G., Yabuki, T., Monachon, C., Wu, J. & Dames, C. Thermal diodes, regulators, and switches: Physical mechanisms and potential applications. Appl. Phys. Rev. 4, 041304 (2017).
Lyeo, H. K. et al. Thermal conductivity of phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5. Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151904 (2006).
Reifenberg, J. P. et al. Thickness and stoichiometry dependence of the thermal conductivity of GeSbTe films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111904 (2007).
Zhu, J. et al. Temperature-gated thermal rectifier for active heat flow control. Nano Lett. 14, 4867–4872 (2014).
Ito, K., Nishikawa, K., Iizuka, H. & Toshiyoshi, H. Experimental investigation of radiative thermal rectifier using vanadium dioxide. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 253503 (2014).
Ben-Abdallah, P. & Biehs, S. A. Phase-change radiative thermal diode. Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191907 (2013).
Yang, J. et al. Enhanced and switchable nanoscale thermal conduction due to van der Waals interfaces. Nat. Nanotech. 7, 91–95 (2012).
Cho, J. et al. Electrochemically tunable thermal conductivity of lithium cobalt oxide. Nat. Commun. 5, 4035 (2014).
Ihlefeld, J. F. et al. Room-temperature voltage tunable phonon thermal conductivity via reconfigurable interfaces in ferroelectric thin films. Nano Lett. 15, 1791–1795 (2015).
Guo, L., Zhang, X., Huang, Y., Hu, R. & Liu, C. Thermal characterization of a new differential thermal expansion heat switch for space optical remote sensor. Appl. Therm. Eng. 113, 1242–1249 (2017).
Marland, B., Bugby, D. & Stouffer, C. Development and testing of an advanced cryogenic thermal switch and cryogenic thermal switch test bed. Cryogenics 44, 413–420 (2004).
Jani, J. M., Leary, M., Subic, A. & Gibson, M. A. A review of shape memory alloy research, applications and opportunities. Mater. Des. 56, 1078–1113 (2014).
Jain, A. & Goodson, K. E. Measurement of the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of freestanding shape memory thin films using the 3ω method. J. Heat Transfer 130, 102402 (2008).
Yovanovich, M. M. Four decades of research on thermal contact, gap, and joint resistance in microelectronics. IEEE Trans. Components Packaging Technol 28, 182–206 (2005).
Tso, C. Y. & Chao, C. Y. Solid-state thermal diode with shape memory alloys. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 93, 605–611 (2016).
Saums, D. ASTM D 5470-06 Thermal Interface Material Test Stand (DS&A LLC, 2006).
Hao, M., Saviers, K. R. & Fisher, T. S. Design and validation of a high-temperature thermal interface resistance measurement system. J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl. 8, 031008 (2016).
Aceves, S. M., Berry, G. D., Martinez-Frias, J. & Espinosa-Loza, F. Vehicular storage of hydrogen in insulated pressure vessels. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 31, 2274–2283 (2006).
Kuze, Y., Kobayashi, H., Ichinose, H. & Otsuka, T. Development of New Generation Hybrid System (THS II)-Development of Toyota Coolant Heat Storage System Report 0148-7191 (SAE Technical Paper, 2004).
Strnadel, B., Ohashi, S., Ohtsuka, H., Ishihara, T. & Miyazaki, S. Cyclic stress-strain characteristics of TiNi and TiNiCu shape memory alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 202, 148–156 (1995).
Santhanagopalan, S., Zhang, Q., Kumaresan, K. & White, R. E. Parameter estimation and life modeling of lithium-ion cells. J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, A345–A353 (2008).
Ramadass, P., Haran, B., Gomadam, P. M., White, R. & Popov, B. N. Development of first principles capacity fade model for Li-ion cells. J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, A196–A203 (2004).
Panasonic 18650PF Specifications (Panasonic, accessed 20 July 2018); https://industrial.panasonic.com/ww/products/batteries/secondary-batteries/lithium-ion/cylindrical-type
Millner, A. Modeling lithium ion battery degradation in electric vehicles. In Proc. 2010 IEEE Conference Innovative Technol. Efficient Reliable Electricity Supply (CITRES) 349–356 (IEEE, 2010).
The authors gratefully acknowledge funding support from Toyota Research Institute North America and technical discussions with D. Banerjee and G. Zhu. The authors also thank X. Ren and X. Zhang for assistance with FTIR measurements.
M.H. and C.D. are co-inventors on a provisional patent application (US 62/719,220) that has been filed by the Regents of the University of California based on this work.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Hao, M., Li, J., Park, S. et al. Efficient thermal management of Li-ion batteries with a passive interfacial thermal regulator based on a shape memory alloy. Nat Energy 3, 899–906 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-018-0243-8
Progress in Energy (2021)
A Triple-Mode Midinfrared Modulator for Radiative Heat Management of Objects with Various Emissivity
Nano Letters (2021)
Experimental study on active control of refrigerant emergency spray cooling of thermal abnormal power battery
Applied Thermal Engineering (2021)
Nature Reviews Materials (2021)
Nature Materials (2021)