Despite its largely hyper-arid and inhospitable climate today, the Arabian Peninsula is emerging as an important area for investigating Pleistocene hominin dispersals. Recently, a member of our own species was found in northern Arabia dating to ca. 90 ka, while stone tools and fossil finds have hinted at an earlier, middle Pleistocene, hominin presence. However, there remain few direct insights into Pleistocene environments, and associated hominin adaptations, that accompanied the movement of populations into this region. Here, we apply stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis to fossil mammal tooth enamel (n = 21) from the middle Pleistocene locality of Ti’s al Ghadah in Saudi Arabia associated with newly discovered stone tools and probable cutmarks. The results demonstrate productive grasslands in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula ca. 300–500 ka, as well as aridity levels similar to those found in open savannah settings in eastern Africa today. The association between this palaeoenvironmental information and the earliest traces for hominin activity in this part of the world lead us to argue that middle Pleistocene hominin dispersals into the interior of the Arabian Peninsula required no major novel adaptation.

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We thank HRH Prince Sultan bin Salman, President of the Saudi Commission for Tourism & National Heritage (SCTH) and Vice Presidents A. Ghabban and J. Omar for permission to conduct this study. This project was funded by the European Research Council (grant no. 295719 to M.D.P.), the Max Planck Society, and the SCTH. Z. Nawab, former President of the Saudi Geological Survey, provided research support. We thank A. Gledhill, University of Bradford, for his assistance with the stable isotope analysis. We thank K. Privat of the Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre (UNSW) for assistance with SEM imagery. H.S.G. and E.M.L.S. acknowledge the British Academy for funding. M.S acknowledges The Leakey Foundation for funding. ANA acknowledges the Deanship of Scientific Research at the King Saud University through Vice Deanship of Research Chairs for their additional funding.

Author information


  1. Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany

    • Patrick Roberts
    • , Huw S. Groucutt
    • , Eleanor M. L. Scerri
    • , Jana Zech
    • , Nicole Boivin
    •  & Michael Petraglia
  2. Palaeontology, Geobiology and Earth Archives Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    • Mathew Stewart
  3. KSU Mammals Research Chair, Zoology Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    • Abdulaziz N. Alagaili
  4. Department of Geography, King’s College, London, UK

    • Paul Breeze
    •  & Nick Drake
  5. Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, London, UK

    • Ian Candy
  6. Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, School of Archaeology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    • Huw S. Groucutt
    • , Eleanor M. L. Scerri
    •  & Julia Lee-Thorp
  7. Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith Sciences – Centres and Institutes, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia

    • Julien Louys
  8. Department of Paleontology, Saudi Geological Survey, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    • Iyad S. Zalmout
    •  & Yahya S. A. Al-Mufarreh
  9. King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    • Abdullah M. Alsharekh
  10. Saudi Commission for Tourism & National Heritage, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    • Abdulaziz al Omari
  11. Human Origins Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA

    • Michael Petraglia


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P.R., M.S. and M.P. planned the project. P.R., M.S., A.N.A., P.B., H.S.G., E.M.L.S., J.L.T., J.L., J.Z. and I.S.Z. performed the experiments. P.R., M.S., A.N.A., P.B., H.S.G., E.M.L.S., J.L.T., J.L., J.Z. and I.S.Z. performed the data analysis. All authors interpreted the data. All authors wrote and provided comment on the manuscript.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Correspondence to Patrick Roberts or Mathew Stewart or Michael Petraglia.

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