Peer review is widely considered fundamental to maintaining the rigour of science, but it often fails to ensure transparency and reduce bias in published papers, and this systematically weakens the quality of published inferences. In part, this is because many reviewers are unaware of important questions to ask with respect to the soundness of the design and analyses, and the presentation of the methods and results; also some reviewers may expect others to be responsible for these tasks. We therefore present a reviewers’ checklist of ten questions that address these critical components. Checklists are commonly used by practitioners of other complex tasks, and we see great potential for the wider adoption of checklists for peer review, especially to reduce bias and facilitate transparency in published papers. We expect that such checklists will be well received by many reviewers.

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We thank A. Moore for suggestions that improved the manuscript.

Author information


  1. Department of Biology, Whitman College, Walla Walla, WA, USA

    • Timothy H. Parker
  2. Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia

    • Timothy H. Parker
    •  & Simon C. Griffith
  3. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

    • Judith L. Bronstein
  4. School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

    • Fiona Fidler
    •  & Hannah Fraser
  5. History & Philosophy of Science, School of Historical & Philosophical Studies, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

    • Fiona Fidler
  6. Department of Biology, Clark University, Worcester, MA, USA

    • Susan Foster
  7. Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Germany

    • Wolfgang Forstmeier
  8. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA

    • Jessica Gurevitch
  9. School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK

    • Julia Koricheva
  10. Department of Computational Landscape Ecology, UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany

    • Ralf Seppelt
  11. Institute of Geoscience and Geography, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany

    • Ralf Seppelt
  12. iDiv – German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

    • Ralf Seppelt
  13. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA

    • Morgan W. Tingley
  14. Evolution & Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia

    • Shinichi Nakagawa


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T.H.P. composed the original draft of this manuscript in consultation with S.C.G. and S.N. S.N. made the figure. The manuscript was edited substantially over multiple rounds with input from all co-authors.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Correspondence to Timothy H. Parker.

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