Dinosaurs dominated terrestrial ecosystems across the globe for over 100 million years and provide a classic example of an evolutionary radiation. However, little is known about how these animals radiated geographically to become globally distributed. Here, we use a biogeographical model to reconstruct the dinosaurs’ ancestral locations, revealing the spatial mechanisms that underpinned this 170-million-year-long radiation. We find that dinosaurs spread rapidly initially, followed by a significant continuous and gradual reduction in their speed of movement towards the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (66 million years ago). This suggests that the predominant mode of dinosaur speciation changed through time with speciation originally largely driven by geographical isolation—when dinosaurs speciated more, they moved further. This was gradually replaced by increasing levels of sympatric speciation (species taking advantage of ecological opportunities within their existing environment) as terrestrial space became a limiting factor. Our results uncover the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.
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We thank M. Benton and M. Sakamoto for help with classifying dinosaur diet and gait, and J. Czaplewski for help with obtaining the palaeomaps. We are also grateful to J. Baker, H. Ferguson-Gow, J. Avaria-Llautureo, S. Branford, L. Johnson, I. Siveroni and M. Pagel for helpful discussion. This work is supported by The Leverhulme Trust (RPG-2013-185 and RPG-2017-071) and the BBSRC (BB/L018594/1).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Table containing the diet and gait classifications for each dinosaur species (n = 595) used in the phylogenetic regression analyses testing factors determining dinosaur movement
Supplementary Figure 1. The importance of using coordinates that are in both the right geographic and temporal context. Supplementary Figure 2. A representation of the relationships between example species A and B. Supplementary Figure 3. The importance of including all of the available fossil occurrences as data at the tips of the phylogeny used to estimate ancestral locations (green squares).
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O’Donovan, C., Meade, A. & Venditti, C. Dinosaurs reveal the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation. Nat Ecol Evol 2, 452–458 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0454-6
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