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No pixel-level annotations needed

A deep-learning model for cancer detection trained on a large number of scanned pathology slides and associated diagnosis labels enables model development without the need for pixel-level annotations.

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Fig. 1: Manual pixel-level annotations are challenging to perform at scale.
Fig. 2: Tumour diagnosis via MIL in the absence of pixel-level annotations.


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Correspondence to Jeroen van der Laak.

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Jeroen van der Laak is a member of the scientific advisory boards of Philips (The Netherlands) and ContextVision (Sweden), and receives research funding from Philips (The Netherlands) and from Sectra (Sweden). The remaining authors declare no competing interests.

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van der Laak, J., Ciompi, F. & Litjens, G. No pixel-level annotations needed. Nat Biomed Eng 3, 855–856 (2019).

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