Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can be used to characterize fibrosis, oedema, ischaemia, inflammation and other disease conditions. However, the need to reduce artefacts arising from body motion through a combination of electrocardiography (ECG) control, respiration control and contrast-weighting selection makes CMR exams lengthy. Here, we show that physiological motions and other dynamic processes can be conceptualized as multiple time dimensions that can be resolved via low-rank tensor imaging, allowing for motion-resolved quantitative imaging with up to four time dimensions. This continuous-acquisition approach, which we name CMR multitasking, captures—rather than avoids—motion, relaxation and other dynamics to efficiently perform quantitative CMR without the use of ECG triggering or breath holds. We demonstrate that CMR multitasking allows for T1 mapping, T1/T2 mapping and time-resolved T1 mapping of myocardial perfusion without ECG information and/or under free-breathing conditions. CMR multitasking may provide a foundation for the development of setup-free CMR imaging for the quantitative evaluation of cardiovascular health.
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This work was supported by NIH 1R01HL124649 and NIH T32HL116273.
D.L., A.G.C., J.L.S., Y.X. and C.N. have a provisional patent application entitled ‘Low-rank tensor imaging for multidimensional cardiovascular MRI’ (USSN 15/495,588).
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Christodoulou, A.G., Shaw, J.L., Nguyen, C. et al. Magnetic resonance multitasking for motion-resolved quantitative cardiovascular imaging. Nat Biomed Eng 2, 215–226 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-018-0217-y