The dipole repeller

Abstract

Our Local Group of galaxies is moving with respect to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with a velocity1 of VCMB = 631 ± 20 km s−1 and participates in a bulk flow that extends out to distances of ~20,000 km s−1 or more24. There has been an implicit assumption that overabundances of galaxies induce the Local Group motion57. Yet underdense regions push as much as overdensities attract8, but they are deficient in light and consequently difficult to chart. It was suggested a decade ago that an underdensity in the northern hemisphere roughly 15,000 km s−1 away contributes significantly to the observed flow9. We show here that repulsion from an underdensity is important and that the dominant influences causing the observed flow are a single attractor — associated with the Shapley concentration — and a single previously unidentified repeller, which contribute roughly equally to the CMB dipole. The bulk flow is closely anti-aligned with the repeller out to 16,000 ± 4,500 km s−1. This ‘dipole repeller’ is predicted to be associated with a void in the distribution of galaxies.

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Figure 1: A face-on view of a slice 6,000kms−1 thick, normal to the direction of the pointing vector r ˆ = ( 0.604,0.720 , 0.342 ) .
Figure 2: A 3D view of the velocity field.
Figure 3: Aitoff projection in galactic coordinates of the principal structures and directions that characterize the flow.

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Acknowledgements

We thank J. Sorce and S. Gottloeber for discussions and A. Dupuy for her help in preparing Fig. 3. We thank K. Bowles and S. Thompson for the narration in the Supplementary Video. Support has been provided by the Israel Science Foundation (1013/12), the Institut Universitaire de France, the US National Science Foundation, Space Telescope Science Institute for observations with Hubble Space Telescope, the Jet Propulsion Lab for observations with Spitzer Space Telescope and NASA for analysis of data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer.

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Contributions

R.B.T. and H.M.C. carried out the observations and data analysis; D.P. contributed graphics and visualization; Y.H. carried out the numerical and theoretical analysis. All co-authors contributed to the writing of the paper, led by Y.H.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yehuda Hoffman.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figures 1–3, Supplementary Table 1. (PDF 1220 kb)

Supplementary Video

The dipole repeller. (MP4 83651 kb)

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Hoffman, Y., Pomarède, D., Tully, R. et al. The dipole repeller. Nat Astron 1, 0036 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-016-0036

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