Abstract
Predictive models that accurately emulate complex scientific processes can achieve speedups over numerical simulators or experiments and at the same time provide surrogates for improving the subsequent analysis. Consequently, there is a recent surge in utilizing modern machine learning methods to build datadriven emulators. In this work, we study an often overlooked, yet important, problem of choosing loss functions while designing such emulators. Popular choices such as the mean squared error or the mean absolute error are based on a symmetric noise assumption and can be unsuitable for heterogeneous data or asymmetric noise distributions. We propose LearnbyCalibrating, a novel deep learning approach based on interval calibration for designing emulators that can effectively recover the inherent noise structure without any explicit priors. Using a large suite of usecases, we demonstrate the efficacy of our approach in providing highquality emulators, when compared to widelyadopted loss function choices, even in smalldata regimes.
Introduction
Building functional relationships between a collection of observed input variables x = {x_{1}, ⋯ , x_{d}} and a response variable y is a central problem in scientific applications—examples range from estimating the future state of a molecular dynamics simulation^{1} to searching for exotic particles in highenergy physics^{2} and detecting the likelihood of disease progression in a patient^{3}. Emulating complex scientific processes using computationally efficient predictive models can achieve significant speedups over traditional numerical simulators or conducting actual experiments, and more importantly provides surrogates for improving the subsequent analysis steps such as inverse modeling, experiment design, etc. Commonly referred to as supervised learning in the machine learning literature, the goal here is to infer the function f: x ↦ y using a training sample \({\{({{\bf{x}}}_{i},{{\bf{y}}}_{i})\}}_{i = 1}^{n}\), such that the expected discrepancy between y and f(x), typically measured using a loss function \({\mathcal{L}}({\bf{y}},f({\bf{x}}))\), is minimized over the joint distribution p(x, y).
With the availability of modern representationlearning methods that can handle complex, multivariate datatypes, the response variable y can now correspond to quantities ranging from a collection of scalars, to images, multivariate timeseries measurements, and even symbolic expressions, or combinations thereof^{4,5,6,7}. In particular, the success of deep neural networks (DNN) in approximating scientific processes involving different types of response variables has generated significant research interest toward improving the accuracy and reliability of emulators^{8,9,10,11}. This includes the large body of recent works on incorporating known scientific priors as constraints into predictive modeling^{12}, designing custom neural network architectures that can systematically preserve the underlying symmetries^{13}, integrating uncertainty quantification methodologies to improve model reliability^{9}, and devising novel learning techniques that can handle the inherent data challenges in scientific problems (e.g., small data, underdetermined systems)^{8}. However, a fundamental, yet often overlooked, aspect of this problem is the choice of the loss function \({\mathcal{L}}\). Denoting y = f(x) + n, where n denotes the inherent noise in the observed data, the loss function used to measure the discrepancy y − f(x) is directly linked to the assumptions made on the noise distribution.
Despite the importance of \({\mathcal{L}}\) in determining the fidelity of f, in practice, simple metrics, such as the ℓ_{2}metric, ∣∣y − f(x)∣∣_{2}, are used, mostly for convenience but also due to lack of priors on the distribution of residuals. However, this disregards the inherent characteristics of the training data and more importantly the fact that choosing a metric implicitly defines a prior for n. Yet, appropriately accounting for noise is crucial to robustly estimate f and to create highfidelity predictions for unseen data. However, this assumption can be easily violated in realworld data. For example, the ℓ_{2} metric is known to be susceptible to outliers^{14} and cannot handle faststate dynamics such as jumps in the state values^{15}. A potential solution is to resort to other symmetric loss functions, e.g., Huber^{14} or the Vapnik’s ϵ—insensitive loss^{16}, that are known to be more robust. However, even those variants can be insufficient when data are more heterogeneous, for example, due to heteroscedastic variance or other forms of nonlocationscale covariate effects^{17}. With heterogeneous data, merely estimating the conditional mean is insufficient, as estimates of the standard errors are often biased. This has led to the design of different parameterized, asymmetric loss functions, e.g., quantile^{17} or quantile Huber^{18,19}, that enable one to explore the entire conditional distribution of the response variable p(y∣x) instead of only the conditional mean. Though quantile regression has been found to be effective in handling heterogeneous data and being robust to outliers, determining the appropriate quantile parameter that reflects the expected degree of asymmetry in the distribution of residuals is challenging. This becomes even more intractable when the response variable y is multivariate, and one needs to determine the parameter τ for each of the response variables.
In this paper, we present LearnbyCalibrating (LbC), a nonparametric approach based on interval calibration for building emulators in scientific applications that are effective even with heterogeneous data and are robust to outliers. The notion of interval calibration comes from the uncertainty quantification literature^{20,21} and can be formally defined as follows: let us assume that the model f is designed to produce prediction intervals, in lieu of simple point estimates, for the response y, i.e., \([\hat{{\bf{y}}}{\delta }^{l},\hat{{\bf{y}}}+{\delta }^{u}]\). Suppose that the likelihood for the true response y to be contained in the prediction interval is \(p(\hat{{\bf{y}}}{\delta }^{l}\le {\bf{y}}\le \hat{{\bf{y}}}+{\delta }^{u})\), the intervals are considered to be wellcalibrated if the likelihood matches the expected confidence level. For a confidence level α, we expect the interval to contain the true response for 100 × α% of realizations from p(x). Though calibration has been conventionally used for evaluating and correcting uncertainty estimators, this paper advocates for utilizing calibration as a training objective in regression models. More specifically, LbC uses two separate modules, implemented as neural networks, to produce point estimates and intervals, respectively, for the response variable, and poses a bilevel optimization problem to solve for the parameters of both the networks. This eliminates the need to construct priors on the expected residual structure and makes it applicable to both homogeneous and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, by effectively recovering the inherent noise structure, LbC leads to highly robust models.
Figure 1 provides an illustration of a simple 1D regression experiment using a singlelayer neural network with 100 neurons and rectified linear units (ReLU) nonlinear activation. We find that LbC is consistently superior to the widely adopted ℓ_{2} and Huber loss functions, under both symmetric and asymmetric noise models, as well as in the presence of outliers. Note that the evaluation metric in each of the examples (and throughout the paper) remains the traditional MSE and the Rsquared (R^{2}) statistic. The only difference is the loss function used during training. We attribute this improvement to the datadriven noise model of the LbC objective that generalizes better to unseen data.
We evaluated the proposed approach using a large suite of use cases, which require the design of accurate emulators for the underlying scientific processes. These benchmarks represent a broad range of realworld scenarios including different sample sizes, varying input dimensionality, and the need to handle response variable types ranging from single/multiple scalar quantities and multivariate timeseries measurements to multimodal outputs. Our empirical studies clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of calibrationbased training in inferring highfidelity functional approximations to complex scientific processes. We find that it consistently outperforms several stateoftheart baselines, including different variants of DNN and ensemble techniques, such as random forests and gradientboosting machines, trained with the widely adopted MSE and Huber loss functions. Furthermore, when compared to deep networks trained with the symmetric losses, we find that LbC can operate reliably even in smalldata regimes (as low as 1000), producing higherquality models than even ensemble methods. In summary, LbC is a simple, yet powerful, approach to design emulators that are robust, reflect the inherent data characteristics, generalize well to unseen samples, and reliably replace accurate (expensive) simulators in scientific workflows.
Results
The primary focus of this study is to investigate the impact of using a calibrationdriven training objective, in lieu of widely adopted loss functions, on the quality of emulators. The problems that we consider encompass a broad range of applications, response types, and data sizes, and enable us to rigorously benchmark the proposed approach. Table 1 provides a description of datasets used in each of the use cases. For evaluation, we use two standard metrics, namely root meansquared error (lower is better) and the Rsquared statistic (R^{2}), which measures the proportion of variance in the response variable that is predictable from the input variable (higher is better).
Data description
We consider a large suite of scientific problems and design emulators using stateoftheart predictive modeling techniques, namely predicting the critical temperature of a superconductor based on its chemical formula^{22}, airfoil selfnoise estimation in aeronautical systems^{23}, estimating compressive strength of concrete based on its material composition^{24}, approximating a decentralized smart grid control simulation that characterizes the stability of an energy grid^{25}, mimicking the clinical scoring process from biomedical measurements in Parkinson patients^{26}, emulating a semianalytical 1D simulator (JAG) for inertial confinement fusion that produces multiple diagnostic scalars^{27}, emulating a 2D simulator for inertial confinement fusion that produces multimodal outputs, and emulating a reservoir simulator that provides estimates for oilandwater production over time^{28}.
Superconducting materials, which conduct current with zero resistance, are an integral part of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and utilized for designing coils to maintain high magnetic fields in particle accelerators. A superconductor exhibits its inherent zeroresistance property only at or below its critical temperature (T_{c}). Developing scientific theory or a model to predict T_{c} has been an open problem, since its discovery in 1911, and hence empirical rules are used in practice. For example, it has been assumed that the number of available valence electrons per atom is related to T_{c}, though there is recent evidence that this rule can be violated^{29}. Hence, building statistical predictive models, based on a superconductor’s chemical formula, has become an effective alternative^{22}. This dataset relates 81 elemental properties of each superconductor to the critical temperature on a total of 21,263 samples.
Controlling the noise generated by an aircraft, in particular the selfnoise of the airfoil itself, is essential to improving its efficiency. The selfnoise corresponds to the noise generated when the airfoil passes through smooth nonturbulent inflow conditions. The socalled Brooks model, a semiempirical approach for selfnoise estimation, has been routinely used over 3 decades, though it is known to underpredict the noise level in practice. In recent years, datadriven models are being used instead^{23}, and it is crucial to improve the fidelity of such an emulator. This dataset consists of 1503 cases and 5 features, including the frequency, angle of attack, and chord length to predict selfnoise.
The key objective of the popular UCI benchmark Concrete is to estimate the compressive strength of concrete, which is known to be a highly nonlinear function of its age and material composition. Similar to many other problems in engineering, machinelearning approaches have been found to be superior to heuristic models for estimating the target function^{24}. This falls under the class of smalldata problems, by containing only 1030 samples in 8 dimensions representing the material composition, e.g., amount of cement and fly ash etc.
The Decentralized Smart Grid Control (DSGC) system is a recently developed approach for modeling changes in electricity consumption in response to electricityprice changes. A key challenge in this context is to predict the stability, i.e., whether the behavior of participants in response to price changes can destabilize the grid. This dataset contains 10,000 instances representing local stability analysis of the 4node star system, where each instance is described using 12 different features^{25}.
Parkinsons is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimers. Though medical intervention can control its progression and alleviate some of the symptoms, there is no available cure. Consequently, early diagnosis has become a critical step toward improving the patient’s quality of life^{26}. With the advent of noninvasive monitoring systems in healthcare, their use for early diagnosis in Parkinson patients has gained significant interest. The goal of this use case is to predict the severity of disease progression, quantified via the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), from speech signals (vowel phonotations). The dataset comprises 5875 patients represented using 16 different speech features.
ICF JAG^{27} is a semianalytical 1D simulator for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), which models a highfidelity mapping from the process inputs, e.g., target and laser settings, to process outputs, such as the ICFimplosion neutron yield. The physics of ICF is predicated on interactions between multiple strongly nonlinear physics mechanisms that have multivariate dependence on a large number of controllable parameters. Despite the complicated, nonlinear nature of this response, machinelearning methods such as deep learning have been shown to produce highquality emulators^{8}. This dataset contains 10,000 samples with 5 input parameters and 15 scalar quantities in the response.
ICF Hydra is a 2D physics code used to simulate capsuleimplosion experiments^{30}. This has the physics required to simulate National Ignition Facility (NIF0 capsules, including hydrodynamics, radiation transport, heat conduction, fusion reactions, equations of state, and opacities). It consists of over a million lines of code and takes hours to run a single simulation. In terms of sample size, this is a fairly largescale data with about 93 K simulations, where each sample corresponds to nine input parameters and a multimodal response (2channel Xray images, 28 scalar quantities, FNADS). In our experiments, we consider two different variants, one with only the multivariate scalar response and another with the entire multimodal response. Following the protocol in ref. ^{8}, in the case of multimodal responses, we first build an encoder–decoderstyle neural network that transforms the multimodal response into a joint latent space of 32 dimensions and repose the surrogatemodeling problem as predicting from the input parameters into the lowdimensional latent space. We can recover the actual response using the decoder model on the predicted latent representations.
The reservoir simulator that we used models a twowell waterflood in a reservoir containing two stackedchannel complexes. The model represents a deepwaterslope channel system, in which sediment is deposited in channel complexes as a river empties into a deep basin. A highquality surrogate is required to solve the crucial task of history matching, an illposed inverse problem for calibrating model parameters to realworld measurements. The dataset contains 2000 simulations with 14 input parameters and 3 time histories corresponding to injection pressure, oil, and water production rates. Similar to the ICF Hydra case, we use an autoencoder model to transform the multivariate timeseries response into a 14dimensional latent space. Note that we use the network architecture in ref. ^{31} for designing the autoencoder.
Performance evaluation
To provide statistically meaningful results, we performed fivefold crossvalidation, carried out under three different random seeds (to create traintest splits for crossvalidation), for each of the use cases, and report the average performance (along with standard deviations). For our empirical analysis, we consider the following baseline methods: Random forests (RF) with 100 decision trees trained using the ℓ_{2} metric; Gradientboosting machines with 100 decision trees, trained using the ℓ_{2} loss function; DNN with 5 fully connected layers; a final prediction layer with dimensions corresponding to the response variable (details can be found in the Methods section). Note that we used the ReLU nonlinear activation after every hidden layer and optimized for minimizing the ℓ_{2} metric; a variant of the DNN model, referred as DNN (drp), wherein we introduce dropoutbased epistemic uncertainty estimation during training (details can be found in the Methods section).
The RMSE and R^{2} scores achieved using the different approaches are reported in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. We find that LbC consistently produces higherquality emulators in all cases, and comparatively lesser variance across different trials. In terms of the R^{2} statistic, we find that LbC achieves an average improvement of ~8% over the popular ensemble methods, namely random forests and gradientboosting machines, trained using the ℓ_{2} loss. On the other hand, when compared to the two deeplearning baselines, the average improvement in R^{2} is about 4%. Interestingly, with challenging benchmarks such as the Superconductivity and Parkinsons datasets, the standard neural networkbased solutions (DNN, DNN (drp)) do not provide any benefits over conventional ensemble methods. This can be attributed to the overfitting behavior of overparameterized neural networks in smalldata scenarios. In contrast, LbC is highly robust even in those scenarios and produces higher R^{2} scores (or lower RMSE). This is also apparent from the analysis in Fig. 2, where we find that even with a reduced number of parameters (number of layers), the proposed calibrationdriven learning outperforms a standard deep model with 6 layers. This clearly emphasizes the discrepancy between the true data characteristics and the assumptions placed by the ℓ_{2} loss function. With simulators such as ICF Hydra and the reservoir model, which maps to complex response types, our approach makes accurate predictions in the latent space (from the autoencoder) and when coupled with the decoder accurately matches the true responses (Fig. 3). Interestingly, we find that LbC produces wellcalibrated prediction intervals, when compared to widely adopted uncertaintyestimation methods, including Monte–Carlo dropout^{32}, concrete dropout^{33}, Bayesian neural networks (BNN)^{34}, and heteroscedastic neural networks (HNN)^{35}. Details of this comparison can be found in Supplementary Note 4.
In contrast to existing loss functions, LbC does not place any explicit priors on the residual structure, and hence it is important to analyze the characteristics of errors obtained using our approach. Using the synthetic function from Fig. 1, we varied the percentage of positive noise components in the observed data (50% corresponds to the symmetric noise case) and evaluated the prediction performance using the R^{2} statistic. As shown in Fig. 4a, while LbC outperforms the MSE loss in all cases, with increasing levels of asymmetry, the latter approach produces significantly lowerquality predictions. This clearly evidences the limitation of using a simple Gaussian assumption or even a more general symmetric noise assumption, when the inherent noise distribution is actually asymmetric. From Fig. 4b, where we plot the skewness of residual distributions, we find that LbC effectively captures the true noise model, thus producing highfidelity predictors. Furthermore, we make similar observations on the different use cases (see Fig. 4d–f)—the maximal performance gains (measured as the difference in MSE between the DNN baseline and LbC models with the same network architecture) are obtained when the skewness of the residuals from LbC is large, indicating the insufficiency of MSE loss in modeling realworld scientific data.
Discussion
The intricate interactions between data sampling, model selection, and the inherent randomness in complex systems strongly emphasize the need for a rigorous characterization of ML algorithms^{36,37}. In conventional statistics, uncertainty quantification (UQ) provides this characterization by measuring how accurately a model reflects the physical reality, and by studying the impact of different error sources on the prediction^{35,38,39}. Consequently, several recent efforts have proposed to utilize prediction uncertainties in deep models to shed light onto when and how much to trust the predictions^{35,40,41,42,43}. These uncertainty estimates can also be used for enabling safe ML practice, e.g., identifying outofdistribution samples, detecting anomalies/outliers, delegating highrisk predictions to experts, and defending against adversarial attacks etc.
In recent years, a variety of estimators have been proposed in the literature for measuring these uncertainties in DNN, most often with classification models. For example, Bayesian neural nets^{34}, Monte–Carlo dropout^{32}, concrete dropout^{33}, and ensembling techniques^{44} are commonly utilized to estimate the epistemic uncertainty (or model uncertainty). Similarly, Tagasovska et al. recently developed a conditional quantilebased estimator for measuring aleatoric uncertainties^{45}. Due to the lack of suitable evaluation mechanisms for validating the quality of these estimates, it is common to utilize empirical calibration as a quality metric^{20,46,47,48,49}. Interestingly, it has been reported in several studies that these estimators are not inherently wellcalibrated^{47}. Consequently, a large class of techniques that are aimed at calibrating pretrained models has been developed^{50,51,52,53}. While these methods can produce wellcalibrated prediction intervals in regression tasks, the estimated uncertainties cannot be directly utilized to update the model parameters. In contrast, this work proposes to utilize interval calibration to learn the model parameters and does not require a separate recalibration step. Using empirical studies with a number of benchmark problems in science and engineering, we find that LbC produces predictive models that are both accurate and wellcalibrated (see Supplementary Note 4), when compared to existing uncertaintyestimation methods.
Methods
Formulation
LbC is a priorfree approach for training regression models via interval calibration. We begin by assuming that our model produces prediction intervals instead of simple point estimates, i.e., \([\hat{{\bf{y}}}{\delta }^{l},\hat{{\bf{y}}}+{\delta }^{u}]\), for an input sample x. More specifically, our model comprises two modules f and g, implemented as DNN, to produce estimates \(\hat{{\bf{y}}}=f({\bf{x}};\theta )\) and (δ^{l}, δ^{u}) = g(x; ϕ). We design a bilevel optimization strategy to infer θ and ϕ, i.e., parameters of the two modules, using observed data \({\{({{\bf{x}}}_{i},{{\bf{y}}}_{i})\}}_{i = 1}^{n}\):
Here \({{\mathcal{L}}}_{f}\) and \({{\mathcal{L}}}_{g}\) are the loss functions for the two modules. In practice, we use an alternating optimization strategy to infer the parameters. LbC utilizes interval calibration from uncertainty quantification to carry out this optimization without placing an explicit prior on the residuals. We attempt to produce prediction intervals that can be calibrated to different confidence levels α and hence the module g needs to estimate (δ^{l,α}, δ^{u,α}) corresponding to each α. In our formulation, we use \(\alpha \in {\mathcal{A}}\), \({\mathcal{A}}=[0.1,0.3,0.5,0.7,0.9,0.99]\). Note that while the choice of \({\mathcal{A}}\) is not very sensitive, we find that simultaneously optimizing for confidence levels in the entire range of [0, 1] is beneficial. However, considering more finegrained sampling of α’s (e.g., {0.05, 0.1, ⋯ }) did not lead to significant performance gains, but required more training iterations. The loss function \({{\mathcal{L}}}_{g}\) is designed using an empirical calibration metric similar to^{20}
Here, \(({\delta }_{i}^{l,\alpha },{\delta }_{i}^{u,\alpha })\) represents the estimated interval for sample index i at confidence level α, 1 is an indicator function, and λ_{1}, λ_{2} are hyperparameters (set to 0.05 in our experiments). The first term measures the discrepancy between the expected confidence level and the likelihood of the true response falling in the estimated interval. Note that the estimates \(\hat{{\bf{y}}}=f({\bf{x}};\theta )\) are obtained using the current state of the parameter θ, and the last two terms are used as regularizers to penalize larger intervals so that trivial solutions are avoided. In practice, we find that such a simultaneous optimization for different \(\alpha ^{\prime}\)s is challenging and hence we randomly choose a single α from \({\mathcal{A}}\) in each iteration, based on which the loss \({{\mathcal{L}}}_{g}\) is computed.
Since LbC relies entirely on calibration, there is no need for explicit discrepancy metrics like ℓ_{2} or Huber for updating the model f. Instead, we employ a hingeloss objective that attempts to adjust the estimate \(\hat{{\bf{y}}}\) such that the observed likelihood of the true response to be contained in the interval increases:
Here, \(({\delta }_{i}^{l,\alpha },{\delta }_{i}^{u,\alpha })=g({{\bf{x}}}_{i};\phi ,\alpha )\) is obtained using the recent state of the parameter ϕ and the randomly chosen α in the current iteration, γ is a predefined threshold (set to 0.05), and the weights \({w}_{i}=({\delta }_{i}^{l,\alpha }+{\delta }_{i}^{u,\alpha })/{\sum }_{j}({\delta }_{j}^{l,\alpha }+{\delta }_{j}^{u,\alpha })\) penalize samples with larger intervals. When compared to a competitive optimization algorithm, e.g., adversarial learning, in LbC, both models are working toward the common objective of improving interval calibration. In general, one can improve the calibration of predictions by adjusting the mean estimate to move closer to the true target, or by suitably widening the interval to include the true target even when the mean estimate is bad. Consequently, when the predictor model improves the mean estimates (for a fixedinterval estimator), the current interval estimates become overly optimistic, i.e., even at lower confidence levels, it will produce higher empirical confidence. Hence, in the subsequent iteration, the interval estimator will sharpen the intervals to make the estimates more underconfident, i.e., at higher confidence levels (say 0.9 or 0.99), it might provide lower empirical confidence. Consequently, LbC alternatively adjusts the predictor and interval estimator models to produce predictive models that are both accurate (goodquality mean estimates) and wellcalibrated (at all confidence levels). This synergistic optimization process thus leads to superior quality predictions, which we find to be effective, regardless of the inherent residual structure. Figure 5 illustrates the proposed approach and the convergence curves for the two models f and g obtained for the synthetic example in Fig. 1.
Architecture
In our implementation, both f and g are implemented as neural networks with fully connected layers and ReLU nonlinear activation. For use cases with at least 5000 samples, we used 5 fully connected layers and the number of hidden units fixed at [64, 128, 512, 256, 32], respectively, and a final prediction layer. Whereas, we used shallow 3layer networks for the smaller datasets ([64, 256, 32]). While the final layer in f corresponds to the dimensionality of the response variable, the final layer in g produces δ^{l} and δ^{u} estimates for each dimension in y at every \(\alpha \in {\mathcal{A}}\).
Training
The networks were trained using the Adam optimizer with the learning rates for the two modules fixed at 1e − 5 and 1e − 4, respectively, and minibatches of size 8. The alternating optimization was carried out for about 1000 iterations with a training schedule of (2,1), i.e., in each iteration, the predictor model is trained for two epochs, while the interval estimator is trained for one epoch. Though both models can be updated using the entire training dataset, in some cases, we find that improved test performance can be achieved by using separate data partitions. Similar ideas are used in metalearning algorithms (e.g., MAML^{54}) in order to implicitly measure the validation performance during training. In our experiments, we randomly split the data into two 50% partitions and used them for training the predictor and interval estimator models. Details of the hyperparameter choices and strategies for improved convergence of this alternating optimization are discussed in Supplementary Note 1.
Baselines
Model ensembles constructed using random forests and gradientboosting machines are known to be a strong baseline in regression problems^{55}. Hence, we chose those two baselines to benchmark the performance of LbC. In addition, we considered standard DNN trained with the ℓ_{2} loss and a staeoftheart variant that incorporates Monte–Carlo dropout^{56} based uncertainty estimation. Dropout is a popular regularization technique that randomly drops hidden units (along with their connections) in a neural network. Following^{56}, for each sample, we make T forward passes with the dropout rate set to τ and obtain the final prediction as the average from the T runs. This is known to produce more robust estimates in regression problems^{20}. In our experiments, we set T = 20 and the dropout rate τ = 0.3.
Data availability
All datasets used in this study, except for the ICF Hydra and reservoir model datasets, are publicly available and we have provided appropriate references to obtain them. The two proprietary datasets will be made available in the future.
Code availability
The software codes associated with this paper will be hosted through a public code repository, https://github.com/jjayaram7/learnbycalibrating.
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Acknowledgements
This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DEAC5207NA27344 and was supported by the LLNLLDRD Program under Project No. 18SI002.
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J.J.T. conceived the presented idea, and along with B.A. developed the overall formulation. While B.S. and P.T.B. helped in setting the highlevel objectives, J.G., G.A., and R.A. contributed substantially in technical discussions through the course of this work. J.J.T. and B.A. implemented an initial version of the proposed approach, and with help of R.A., extended to the different use cases. J.G. and B.S. were instrumental in preparing the ICF JAG and Hydra datasets. Further, R.A., B.V., and G.A. contributed to the design of empirical studies and baseline methods. While J.J.T. led the paperwriting efforts, P.T.B. and R.A. contributed significantly to different sections.
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Thiagarajan, J.J., Venkatesh, B., Anirudh, R. et al. Designing accurate emulators for scientific processes using calibrationdriven deep models. Nat Commun 11, 5622 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467020194488
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467020194488
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