Resistant hypertension is associated with a poor prognosis due to organ damage caused by prolonged suboptimal blood pressure control. The concomitant use of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists with other antihypertensives has been shown to improve blood pressure control in some patients with resistant hypertension, and such patients are considered to have MR-associated hypertension. MR-associated hypertension is classified into two subtypes: one with a high plasma aldosterone level, which includes primary aldosteronism (PA), and the other with a normal aldosterone level. In patients with unilateral PA, adrenalectomy may be the first-choice procedure, while in patients with bilateral PA, MR antagonists are selected. In addition, in patients with other types of MR-associated hypertension with high aldosterone levels, MR antagonists may be selected as a first-line therapy. In patients with normal aldosterone levels, ARBs or ACE inhibitors are used as a first-line therapy, and MR antagonists may be used as an add-on agent. Since MR antagonist therapy may have efficacy as a first-line or add-on agent in these patients, it is important to recognize this type of hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis and management of MR-associated hypertension in more detail to improve the clinical outcomes of patients with MR-associated hypertension.
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Morimoto, S., Ichihara, A. Management of primary aldosteronism and mineralocorticoid receptor-associated hypertension. Hypertens Res 43, 744–753 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41440-020-0468-3
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme
- Angiotensin receptor blocker
- Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist
- Resistant hypertension
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