Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

A 5-year review of 1220 malignant periocular tumours in an English county



To determine the incidence, proportion and location of periocular tumours in an English county over a five year period, and compare to other studies in the UK and worldwide.


A retrospective review of histopathology reports was performed for all periocular excision biopsies of malignancies from the county’s three main hospitals over a 5-year period. These hospitals cover a population of just over one million. Tumours were classified according to type and location.


1220 lesions were included in this study. Right-sided lesions were more common than left. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma was 22 per 100,000 and squamous cell carcinoma 1.3 per 100,000, which were found most commonly on the lower eyelid and eyebrow respectively. The incidences of all other types of lesions were less than 0.5 per 100,000 per year.


The incidence of periocular basal cell carcinomas in the predominantly elderly Caucasian population was at least three times the published national average. The high incidence of periocular tumours in this North East Anglian county is set to increase further as the proportion of over 65 year olds in the population is predicted to nearly double within two decades.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are not openly available and are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


  1. National Collaborating Centre for Cancer. Improving Outcomes for People with Skin Tumours including Melanoma. 2006. Available at: Accessed May 2021.

  2. Lin H-Y, Cheng C-Y, Hsu W-M, Kao WHL, Chou P. Incidence of eyelid cancers in Taiwan. Ophthalmology 2006;113:2101–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Paavilainen V, Tuominen J, Pukkala E, Saari KM. Basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Finland during 1953−97: Acta ophthalmologica scandinavica 2005. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 2005;83:215–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. de Vries E, Louwman M, Bastiaens M, de Gruijl F, Coebergh JW. Rapid and continuous increases in incidence rates of basal cell carcinoma in the Southeast Netherlands since 1973. J Investigative Dermatol. 2004;123:634–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Demographics Services Planning, Performances and Partnerships. Demography and Information in Norfolk. 2012.

  6. Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital Quality Report. 2019. Available at: [Accessed May 24, 2021].

  7. Saleh GM, Desai P, Collin JRO, Ives A, Jones T, Hussain B. Incidence of eyelid basal cell carcinoma in England: 2000–2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2017;101:209–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Quigley C, Deady S, Hughes E, McElnea E, Zgaga L, Chetty S. National incidence of eyelid cancer in Ireland (2005–2015). Eye 2019;33:1534–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Census 2016. Available at: Accessed March 2020.

  10. Rees JR, Zens MS, Celaya MO, Riddle BL, Karagas MR, Peacock JL. Survival after squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma of the skin: a retrospective cohort analysis: survival after keratinocyte cancer. Int J Cancer 2015;137:878–84.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Wawrzynski J, Tudge I, Fitzgerald E, Collin R, Desai P, Emeriewen K, et al. Report on the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas affecting the eyelids in England over a 15-year period (2000–2014). Br J Ophthalmol. 2018;102:1358–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Marks R. Epidemiology of non-melanoma skin cancer and solar keratoses in Australia: a tale of self-immolation in Elysian fields. Australas J Dermatol. 1997;38:S26–S29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Apalla Z, Lallas A, Sotiriou E, Lazaridou E, Ioannides D. Epidemiological trends in skin cancer. Dermatol Pract Concept. 2017; 7. Available at: Accessed May 2021.

  14. Dasgupta T, Wilson LD, Yu JB. A retrospective review of 1349 cases of sebaceous carcinoma: Sebaceous Carcinoma-SEER Database. Cancer 2009;115:158–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Deprez M, Uffer S. Clinicopathological features of eyelid skin tumors. a retrospective study of 5504 cases and review of literature. Am J Dermatopathol. 2009;31:256–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Cook B. Epidemiologic characteristics and clinical course of patients with malignant eyelid tumors in an incidence cohort in Olmsted county, Minnesota. Ophthalmology 1999;106:746–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Sotiropoulos G, Gartzios C, Raggos V, Papoudou-Bai A, Ntountas I, Katsanos A, et al. Eyelid tumors at the university eye clinic of ioannina, greece: a 30-year retrospective study. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2015;22:230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Tavakoli M, Zavareh R, Aletaha M, Bagheri A, Esfandiari H, Kanaani A, et al. Eyelid masses: a 10-year survey from a tertiary eye hospital in Tehran. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2013;20:187.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Kaliki S, Bothra N, Bejjanki KM, Nayak A, Ramappa G, Mohamed A, et al. Malignant eyelid tumors in india: a study of 536 Asian indian patients. Ocul Oncol Pathol. 2019;5:210–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Domingo R, Manganip L, Castro R. Tumors of the eye and ocular adnexa at the Philippine Eye Research Institute: a 10-year review. OPTH. 2015;9:1239–47.

  21. Lim VSY, Amrith S. Declining incidence of eyelid cancers in Singapore over 13 years: population-based data from 1996 to 2008. Br J Ophthalmol 2012;96:1462–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Coroi MC, Roşca E, Muţiu G, Coroi T, Bonta M. Eyelid tumors: histopathological and clinical study performed in County Hospital of Oradea between 2000-2007. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2010;51:111–5.

  23. Al Wohaib M, Al Ahmadi R, Al Essa D, Maktabbi A, Khandekar R, Al Sharif E, et al. Characteristics and factors related to eyelid basal cell carcinoma in Saudi Arabia. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2018;25:96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Ben Simon GJ, Lukovetsky S, Lavinsky F, Rosen N, Rosner M. Histological and clinical features of primary and recurrent periocular basal cell carcinoma. ISRN Ophthalmol. 2012;2012:1–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Wu A, Sun MT, Huilgol SC, Madge S, Selva D. Histological subtypes of periocular basal cell carcinoma: Periocular basal cell carcinoma subtypes. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014;42:603–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



All the authors fulfilled the criteria for authorship. ZL and UQ analysed the data and drafted the manuscript. LI and BH provided the data and revised the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhiheng Lin.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lin, Z., Sheikh, U., Igali, L. et al. A 5-year review of 1220 malignant periocular tumours in an English county. Eye (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


Quick links