To determine if the presence or absence of retinal and choroidal folds on SD-OCT imaging can distinguish between mild papilloedema and pseudopapilledema.
Cross-sectional cohort study
Subjects with optic disc elevation (Frisen grades 1 and 2 only) were eligible to be enrolled prospectively. Pseudopapilledema was defined as a lack of change in optic disc appearance between two visits <6 months apart, and papilloedema was defined as change in optic disc appearance between two visits <6 months apart determined by review of fundus photographs by a masked neuro-ophthalmologist. Three masked neuro-ophthalmologists independently reviewed en face and axial optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the optic nerve of the study subjects for the presence or absence of retinal and choroidal folds. Concordance was determined when there was agreement between at least 2 of the 3 observers.
Forty-five subjects (78 eyes) met inclusion criteria. There were 32 eyes with papilloedema and 46 eyes with pseudopapilledema. Choroidal and/or retinal folds were detected in 38% of eyes (12/32) with papilloedema and 19.6% of eyes (9/46) with pseudopapilledema. Post-hoc analyses eliminated six questionable cases of pseudopapilledema that had ancillary testing suggestive of elevated intracranial pressure and resulted in one remaining eye (2%) with more certain pseudopapilledema that was found to have folds. En face OCT imaging was more sensitive (71%) in detection of folds than axial OCT imaging (57%).
Choroidal and/or retinal folds on OCT are commonly observed in patients with mild papilloedema and are uncommon in those with pseudopapilledema. The presence of folds on OCT in patients presenting with disc elevation suggests papilloedema.
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Conflict of interest
Author RHK receives an unrestricted grant for OCT research funded by Heidelberg Engineering, although this was not utilized in his involvement of this manuscript. No other authors have any conflicts of interest related to this study.
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Reggie, S.N., Avery, R.A., Bavinger, J.C. et al. The sensitivity and specificity of retinal and choroidal folds to distinguish between mild papilloedema and pseudopapilledema. Eye 35, 3131–3136 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41433-020-01368-y
International Journal of Retina and Vitreous (2022)