To determine if changes in OCT parameters including peripapillary RNFL thickness and GCC thickness in Egyptian patients with bipolar disorder exist, and to correlate them with disease severity and clinical characteristics.
A case–control study conducted on 40 patients with bipolar disorder were compared to 40 matched healthy controls. Both patients and controls were subjected to ophthalmic examination including: BCVA, slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, and OCT imaging. Patients were also subjected to Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS).
Thinning of average (RNFL) and average (GCC) thickness of right and left eye in patients with BPD (whether received electroconvulsive therapy or not) when compared with control subjects. Number of episodes, age at onset and severity of disease showed insignificant correlation with OCT parameters.
Significant degenerative changes were detected by OCT in patients with bipolar disorder that were not affected by receiving ECT and not related to disease severity or duration.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $34.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Merikangas KR, Akiskal HS, Angst J, Greenberg PE, Hirschfeld RM, Petukhova M, et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:543–52.
Moorhead TW, Mckirdy J, Sussmann JE, Hall J, Lawrie SM, Johnstone EC, et al. Progressive gray matter loss in patients with bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:894–900.
Vita A, De Peri L, Sacchetti E. Gray matter, white matter, brain, and intracranial volumes in first-episode bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11:807–14.
Kempton MJ, Geddes JR, Ettinger U, Williams SC, Grasby PM. Meta-analysis, database, and meta-regression of 98 structural imaging studies in bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65:1017–32.
Bock M, Paul F, Dorr J. [Diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis: the value of optical coherence tomography]. Nervenarzt. 2013;84:483–92.
Khalil DH, Said MM, Abdelhakim MA, Labeeb DM. OCT and visual field changes as useful markers for follow-up of axonal loss in multiple sclerosis in Egyptian patients. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2016;25:1–8.
First MB, Williams Janet BW, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M. Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR axis I disorders, clinical trials version (SCID-CT). New York: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute; 2017.
Tewarie P, Balk L, Costello F, Green A, Martin R, Schippling S, et al. The OSCAR-IB consensus criteria for retinal OCT quality assessment. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34823. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034823.
Young RC, Biggs JT, Ziegler VE, Meyer DA. A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity. Br J Psychiatry. 1978;133:429–35.
Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960;23:56–62.
Mehraban A, Samimi SM, Entezari M, Seifi MH, Nazari M, Yaseri M. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in bipolar disorder. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016;254:365–71.
Ayhan Y, Sen Z. Neurobiology of bipolar affective disorder: Recent findings on cell and animal studies. Turk Klin J Psychiatry-Spec Top. 2013;6:14–24.
Frey BN, Zunta-Soares GB, Caetano SC, Nicoletti MA, Hatch JP, Brambilla P, et al. Illness duration and total brain gray matter in bipolar disorder: evidence for neurodegeneration? EurNeuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18:717–22.
Kalenderoglu A, Sevgi-Karadag A, Celik M, Egilmez OB, Han-Almis B, Ozen ME. Can the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) volume be a new marker to detect neurodegeneration in bipolar disorder? Compr Psychiatry. 2016;67:66–72.
Yıldız M, Alim S, Batmaz S, Demir S, Songur E, Ortak H, et al. Duration of the depressive episode is correlated with ganglion cell inner plexifrom layer and nasal retinal fiber layer thicknesses: Optical coherence tomography findings in major depression. Psychiatry Res: Neuroimaging. 2016;251:60–6.
Celik M, Kalenderoglu A, Sevgi Karadag A, Bekir Egilmez O, Han-Almis B, Simsek A. Decreases in ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer volumes correlate better with disease severity in schizophrenia patients than retinal nerve fiber layer thickness: Findings from spectral optic coherence tomography. Eur Psychiatry. 2016;32:9–15.
Cunha LP, Almeida ALM, Costa-Conha LVF, Costa CF, Monteiro MLR. The role of optical coherence tomography in Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Retin Vitr. 2016;2–24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40942-016-0049-4.
Pillai JA, Bermel R, Bonner-Jackson A, Rae-Grant A, Fernandez H, Bena J, et al. Retinal nerve fiber layer thinning in Alzheimer’s disease: A case-control study in comparison to normal aging, parkinson’s disease, and non-alzheimer’s dementia. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2016;31:430–6.
Ferrari L, Huang SC, Magnani G, Ambrosi A, Comi G, Leocani L. Optical coherence tomography reveals retinal neuroaxonal thinning in frontotemporal dementia as in Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;56:1101–7.
Poroy C, Yücel AÂ. Optical coherence tomography: Is really a new biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease? Ann Indian Acad Neurol Apr-Jun. 2018;21:119–25.
Alasil T, Wang K, Keane PA, Lee H, Baniasadi N, De Boer JF, et al. Analysis of normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by age, sex, and race using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. J Glaucoma. 2013;22:532–41.
Sani RY, Abdu L, Pam V. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of normal Northern Nigerian adults using optical coherence tomography. Ann Afr Med. 2016;15:52–7.
Appukuttan B, Giridhar A, Gopalakrishnan M, Sivaprasad S. Normative spectral domain optical coherence tomography data on macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in Indians. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2014;62:316–21.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
A correction to this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41433-019-0470-7.
About this article
Cite this article
Khalil, D.H., Said, M.M. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex degeneration in Egyptian patients with bipolar disorder. Eye 33, 1852–1858 (2019) doi:10.1038/s41433-019-0403-5