Changes in the aggregated structure of silica in styrene–butadiene rubber are measured with small-angle X-ray scattering under cyclic uniaxial elongation. We employ a spherical harmonics expansion approach to quantitatively analyze the anisotropic scattering data and to separate the anisotropic response of the silica’s configuration upon the elongation from the isotropic component. The results clearly show inhomogeneity in microscopic deformation upon elongation. Phase lag between microscopic structural responses and macroscopic strain are also observed. This study demonstrates that the combination of time-resolved small-angle scattering measurement and an analysis using spherical harmonics expansion is quite useful for exploring the structural response of filled rubber systems to an external deformation.
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We thank Hiroyasu Masunaga (JASRI/SPring-8) for his support at BL03XU. The SAXS and XPCS measurements were supported by Chikara Sasaki and Daiki Kikutake (University of Tokyo) and were conducted under the approval of SPring-8 Proposal Review Committee (Proposal No. 2014A1287, 2014A7209, 2014B1490, 2014B7259, 2015A1625, 2015A7209, 2015B1425, 2015B7259, 2016A1368, 2016A7209, 2016B1512, 2016B7209). Preliminary measurements of XPCS were conducted at BL40XU, SPring-8 (Proposal No. 2014B1069). This study was partially supported by “Photon and Quantum Basic Research Coordinated Development Program” from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Y.S. is thankful for the discussion with Wei-Ren Chen (ORNL). The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Shinohara, Y., Kishimoto, H., Masui, T. et al. Microscopic structural response of nanoparticles in styrene–butadiene rubber under cyclic uniaxial elongation. Polym J 51, 161–171 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41428-018-0135-6
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