The aim of the study was to validate the impact of the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2413739 (T > C) in the PACSIN2 gene on thiopurines pharmacological parameters and clinical response in an Italian cohort of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In ALL, PACSIN2 rs2413739 T allele was associated with a significant reduction of TPMT activity in erythrocytes (p = 0.0094, linear mixed-effect model, multivariate analysis considering TPMT genotype) and increased severe gastrointestinal toxicity during consolidation therapy (p = 0.049). A similar trend was present also for severe hematological toxicity during maintenance. In IBD, no significant effect of rs2413739 could be found on TPMT activity, however azathioprine effectiveness was reduced in patients carrying the T allele (linear mixed effect, p = 0.0058). In PBMC from healthy donors, a positive correlation between PACSIN2 and TPMT protein concentration could be detected (linear mixed effect, p = 0.045). These results support the role of PACSIN2 polymorphism on TPMT activity and mercaptopurine adverse effects in patients with ALL. Further evidence on PBMC and pediatric patients with IBD supports an association between PACSIN2 variants, TPMT activity, and thiopurines effects, even if more studies are needed since some of these effects may be tissue specific.
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We thank AGMEN (Associazione Genitori Malati Emopatici Neoplastici) Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) and IRCCS Burlo Garofolo in Trieste (Italy) for supporting the pharmacogenetics project. Andrea Biondi was supported by AIRC 2017 investigator grant 20564 and AIRC 5 × 1000.
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Franca, R., Stocco, G., Favretto, D. et al. PACSIN2 rs2413739 influence on thiopurine pharmacokinetics: validation studies in pediatric patients. Pharmacogenomics J (2019) doi:10.1038/s41397-019-0130-0