Article | Published:

Effect of self-guided training for the HandbikeBattle on body composition in people with spinal cord injury

Spinal Cord Series and Casesvolume 4, Article number: 79 (2018) | Download Citation

Abstract

Study design

Single-group pre-test post-test study.

Objectives

Examine the change in (1) fitness and body composition due to self-guided training in preparation for the HandbikeBattle in people with spinal cord injury (SCI); and (2) whether these possible body composition changes are associated with changes in fitness.

Setting

Handcycling teams of Dutch rehabilitation centers training for the HandbikeBattle, a handcycling race on an Austrian mountain.

Methods

Fitness (peak power output (POpeak) determined during a graded handcycling exercise test) and body composition (body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), %fat determined with skinfolds and fat and fat free mass (% and kg) assessed by bio-impedance analysis (BIA)) of 18 persons with SCI were evaluated before and after 4 months of training for the HandbikeBattle. The effects of training were evaluated with repeated measures ANOVA. Associations among changes in POpeak and changes in body composition were calculated with Pearson correlation coefficients.

Results

Training for the HandbikeBattle led to significant improvements in POpeak, fat mass measured by BIA (19.6 ± 9.6 kg to 18.5 ± 8.3 kg, p = 0.02), %fat measured by skinfolds (28.4 ± 7.8% to 27.2 ± 7.2%, p = 0.02), while body mass and WC approached significance (p = 0.06). Association among changes in body composition and changes in POpeak ranged from trivial (e.g., for %fat BIA r = −0.023) to moderate (e.g., for WC, r = −0.32).

Conclusions

Self-guided training for the HandbikeBattle led to a large increase in fitness but had a small effect on body composition, e.g., nutrition may play a more important role than exercise.

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Acknowledgements

The assistance of Suzanne de Groot during part of the data collection is greatly appreciated.

Author information

Author notes

  1. The members of HandbikeBattle group are listed below Acknowledgements.

Affiliations

  1. Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Center | Reade, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    • Sonja de Groot
    •  & Ingrid Kouwijzer
  2. University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Human Movement Sciences, Groningen, The Netherlands

    • Sonja de Groot
    •  & Ingrid Kouwijzer
  3. Research & Development, Rehabilitation Center Heliomare, Wijk aan Zee, The Netherlands

    • Ingrid Kouwijzer
    •  & Linda J. Valent
  4. Nutrition and Dietetics, The Hague University of Applied Sciences, The Hague, The Netherlands

    • Marjolein Baauw
  5. Rehabilitation Center Rijndam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    • Rogier Broeksteeg

Authors

  1. Search for Sonja de Groot in:

  2. Search for Ingrid Kouwijzer in:

  3. Search for Marjolein Baauw in:

  4. Search for Rogier Broeksteeg in:

  5. Search for Linda J. Valent in:

Consortia

  1. HandbikeBattle

    Conflict of interest

    The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

    Statement of ethics

    The study was approved by the Local Ethical Committee of the Center for Human Movement Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. All participants voluntary signed an informed consent form after they were given information about the testing procedures. The study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl, NTR6586).

    Corresponding author

    Correspondence to Sonja de Groot.

    HandbikeBattle group name

    HandbikeBattle group name

    Bram van Gemeren, Rehabilitation center Het Roessingh, Enschede, The Netherlands

    Mark van de Mijll Dekker, Rehabilitation center Heliomare, Wijk aan Zee, The Netherlands

    Karin Postma, Rehabilitation Center Rijndam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    Linda van Vliet, Reade center for rehabilitation & rheumatology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    Misha Metsaars, Libra Rehabilitation & Audiology, location Blixembosch, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

    Eric Helmantel, University Medical Center Groningen, Location Beatrixoord, Haren, The Netherlands

    Lise Wilders, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

    Maremka Zwinkels, Rehabilitation center De Hoogstraat, Utrecht, The Netherlands

    Paul Grandjean, Rehabilitation center Adelante, Hoensbroek, The Netherlands

    Selma Overbeek, Rehabilitation center Tolbrug, Den Bosch, The Netherlands

    About this article

    Publication history

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    DOI

    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41394-018-0103-6