We previously demonstrated an association between placental leptin (LEP) methylation levels and macrosomia without gestational diabetes mellitus (non-GDM). This study further explored the association between LEP methylation in cord blood and non-GDM macrosomia.
We carried out a case–control study of 61 newborns with macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g) and 69 newborns with normal birth weight (2500–3999 g). Methylation in the LEP promoter region was mapped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Average cord blood LEP methylation levels were lower in macrosomia newborns than in control newborns (P < 0.001). Eleven CpG sites were associated with macrosomia. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that low LEP methylation levels [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.72–4.17], high pre-pregnancy body mass index (AOR = 7.44, 95% CI: 1.99–27.75), long gestational age (AOR = 3.18, 95% CI: 1.74–5.79), high cord blood LEP concentration (AOR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.34–3.77), and male newborn gender (AOR = 3.91, 95% CI: 1.31–11.69) significantly increased the risk of macrosomia.
Lower cord blood LEP methylation levels and certain maternal and fetal factors are associated with non-GDM macrosomia.
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We thank Xin-Yun Xu for assistance with collecting cord blood samples and Zi-Wei Liu for reviewing and providing advice on the preparation of the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (to X.-J.Y., No. 81072378) and the Natural Science Funds of Zhejiang (to X.-J.Y., No. Y2101185).