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Beyond the hypothalamus: roles for insulin as a regulator of neurotransmission, motivation, and feeding

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Fig. 1: Summary of effects of insulin receptor activation on synaptic transmission within the nucleus accumbens (striatum) and ventral tegmental area (VTA).


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We thank Dr. Victoria Macht for artwork shown in Fig. 1. CRF was supported by NIDDK R01DK130246, R01DK106188, and 1R01DK115526-01; JEF was supported by T32-DK101357.

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CRF and JEF both contributed to the writing of this manuscript.

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Correspondence to Carrie R. Ferrario.

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Ferrario, C.R., Finnell, J.E. Beyond the hypothalamus: roles for insulin as a regulator of neurotransmission, motivation, and feeding. Neuropsychopharmacol. (2022).

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