The natural history of allergic diseases suggests bidirectional and progressive relationships between allergic disorders of the skin, lung, and gut indicative of mucosal organ crosstalk. However, impacts of local allergic inflammation on the cellular landscape of remote mucosal organs along the skin:lung:gut axis are not yet known. Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling innate immune leukocytes associated with allergic diseases. Emerging data suggest heterogeneous phenotypes of tissue-dwelling eosinophils contribute to multifaceted roles that favor homeostasis or disease. This study investigated the impact of acute local allergen exposure on the frequency and phenotype of tissue eosinophils within remote mucosal organs. Our findings demonstrate allergen challenge to skin, lung, or gut elicited not only local eosinophilic inflammation, but also increased the number and frequency of eosinophils within remote, allergen nonexposed lung, and intestine. Remote allergen-elicited lung eosinophils exhibited an inflammatory phenotype and their presence associated with enhanced susceptibility to airway inflammation induced upon subsequent inhalation of a different allergen. These data demonstrate, for the first time, a direct effect of acute allergic inflammation on the phenotype and frequency of tissue eosinophils within antigen nonexposed remote mucosal tissues associated with remote organ priming for allergic inflammation.
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Authors thank Michiko Oyoshi, PhD, Boston Children’s Hospital for technical advice in establishing the skin challenge model. This work was supported by NIH R01AI121186 to L.A.S.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Olbrich, C.L., Bivas-Benita, M., Xenakis, J.J. et al. Remote allergen exposure elicits eosinophil infiltration into allergen nonexposed mucosal organs and primes for allergic inflammation. Mucosal Immunol 13, 777–787 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-0310-x
Mucosal Immunology (2020)
European Respiratory Review (2020)