Multiregion exome sequencing of ovarian immature teratomas reveals 2N near-diploid genomes, paucity of somatic mutations, and extensive allelic imbalances shared across mature, immature, and disseminated components

Abstract

Immature teratoma is a subtype of malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary that occurs most commonly in the first three decades of life, frequently with bilateral ovarian disease. Despite being the second most common malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary, little is known about its genetic underpinnings. Here we performed multiregion whole-exome sequencing to interrogate the genetic zygosity, clonal relationship, DNA copy number, and mutational status of 52 pathologically distinct tumor components from ten females with ovarian immature teratomas, with bilateral tumors present in five cases and peritoneal dissemination in seven cases. We found that ovarian immature teratomas are genetically characterized by 2N near-diploid genomes with extensive loss of heterozygosity and an absence of genes harboring recurrent somatic mutations or known oncogenic variants. All components within a single ovarian tumor (immature teratoma, mature teratoma with different histologic patterns of differentiation, and yolk sac tumor) were found to harbor an identical pattern of loss of heterozygosity across the genome, indicating a shared clonal origin. In contrast, the four analyzed bilateral teratomas showed distinct patterns of zygosity changes in the right versus left sided tumors, indicating independent clonal origins. All disseminated teratoma components within the peritoneum (including gliomatosis peritonei) shared a clonal pattern of loss of heterozygosity with either the right or left primary ovarian tumor. The observed genomic loss of heterozygosity patterns indicate that diverse meiotic errors contribute to the formation of ovarian immature teratomas, with 11 out of the 15 genetically distinct clones determined to result from nondisjunction errors during meiosis I or II. Overall, these findings suggest that copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity resulting from meiotic abnormalities may be sufficient to generate ovarian immature teratomas from germ cells.

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Fig. 1: Histology images of the ovarian immature teratomas from three representative patients that were studied by whole-exome sequencing.
Fig. 2: Ovarian immature teratomas are characterized by extensive genomic loss of heterozygosity.
Fig. 3: Identical patterns of genomic loss of heterozygosity among all mature, immature, and disseminated components in ovarian teratomas confirm a single clonal origin, except in females with bilateral tumors.
Fig. 4: The five proposed genetic mechanisms of origin of ovarian teratomas from a germ cell.

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported by NIH Director’s Early Independence Award (DP5 OD021403) and the UCSF Physician-Scientist Scholar Program to D.A.S.

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Correspondence to David A. Solomon or Raymond J. Cho.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Dr. Rabban reports that his spouse receives salary and stock options from Merck & Co. None of the other authors have any relevant disclosures related to the content of this article to report.

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Heskett, M.B., Sanborn, J.Z., Boniface, C. et al. Multiregion exome sequencing of ovarian immature teratomas reveals 2N near-diploid genomes, paucity of somatic mutations, and extensive allelic imbalances shared across mature, immature, and disseminated components. Mod Pathol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41379-019-0446-y

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