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Stem cell biology

Hematopoietic cell transplantation utilization and outcomes for primary plasma cell leukemia in the current era

A Correction to this article was published on 05 June 2021

A Correction to this article was published on 29 March 2021

This article has been updated

Abstract

The outcomes of patients with primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) after undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the novel agent era are unknown. We report outcomes of 348 patients with pPCL receiving autologous (auto-) HCT (n = 277) and allogeneic (allo-) HCT (n = 71) between 2008 and 2015. Median age was 60 years and 56 years for auto- and allo-HCT respectively. For auto-HCT, the 4-year outcomes were: non-relapse mortality (NRM) 7% (4–11%), relapse (REL) 76% (69–82%), progression-free survival (PFS) 17% (13–23%), and overall survival (OS) 28% (22–35%). Karnofsky performance status (KPS) > 90 and ≥very good partial response (VGPR) predicted superior OS in multi-variate analysis for auto-HCT. For allo-HCT, the 4-year outcomes were: NRM 12% (5–21%), REL 69% (56–81%), PFS 19% (10–31%), and OS 31% (19–44%). Compared with prior CIBMTR pPCL patients (1995–2006), inferior survival was noted in the current cohort (3-year OS, 39% vs. 38% in allo-HCT, and 62% vs. 35% in auto-HCT) respectively. However, we noted an increased HCT utilization, from 12% (7–21%) in 1995 to 46% (34–64%) in 2009 using SEER data (available till 2009). Despite modern induction translating to higher proportion receiving HCT, the outcomes remain poor in pPCL patients, mainly derived by high relapse rates post-HCT.

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Fig. 1: Survival of plasma cell leukemia after HCT.
Fig. 2: Non-relapse mortality and relapse of plasma cell leukemia after HCT.

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Acknowledgements

The CIBMTR is supported primarily by Public Health Service U24CA076518 from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); U24HL138660 from NHLBI and NCI; U01HL128568 from the NHLBI; HHSH250201700006C, and HHSH250201700007C from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA); and N00014-20-1-2705 and N00014-20-1-2832 from the Office of Naval Research; Additional federal support is provided by P01CA111412, R01CA152108, R01CA215134, R01CA218285, R01CA231141, R01AI128775, R01HL126589, R01HL129472, R01HL130388, R01HL131731, U01AI069197, U01AI126612, UG1HL06924, and BARDA. Support is also provided by Be the Match Foundation, Boston Children’s Hospital, Dana Farber, St. Baldrick’s Foundation, Stanford University, the Medical College of Wisconsin the National Marrow Donor Program, and from the following commercial entities: Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Adienne SA; Allovir, Inc.; Amgen, Inc.; Angiocrine Bioscience; Astellas Pharma US; bluebird bio, Inc.; Bristol Myers Squibb Co.; Celgene Corp.; CSL Behring; CytoSen Therapeutics, Inc.; Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.; ExcellThera; Fate Therapeutics; Gamida-Cell, Ltd.; Genentech Inc; Incyte Corporation; Janssen/Johnson & Johnson; Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Kiadis Pharma; Kite, a Gilead Company; Kyowa Kirin; Legend Biotech; Magenta Therapeutics; Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.; Millennium, the Takeda Oncology Co.; Miltenyi Biotec, Inc.; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Omeros Corporation; Oncoimmune, Inc.; Orca Biosystems, Inc.; Pfizer, Inc.; Pharmacyclics, LLC; Sanofi Genzyme; Stemcyte; Takeda Pharma; Vor Biopharma; Xenikos BV. The views expressed in this article do not reflect the official policy or position of the National Institute of Health, the Department of the Navy, the Department of Defense, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) or any other agency of the U.S. Government.

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Correspondence to Anita D’Souza.

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The following authors have conflict of interest: BD reports honorarium from Celgene; Advisory board for Takeda and Amgen. HML reports Bristol Myers Squibb and Celgene. RPG reports Celgene Corporation. KS-G reports Abbot and AbbVie. AA reports research funding from Incyte Corporation; Advisory board for Boston Biomedical and Incyte Corporation. Consulting for Alpha Insights. LH reports Up-To-Date. NS reports funding from Celgene, Bluebird Bio, Sutro Biopharma; Advisory role for Genentech, Seattle Genetics, Oncopeptides, Karoypharm, Surface Oncology, Precision Biosciences, GSK, Nektar, Amgen, Indapta Therapeutics, Sanofi; Stock Ownership for Indapta Therapeutics. ADS reports funding from Merck, Prothena, Sanofi, Mundipharma EDO, TeneoBio, Takeda and has received consulting fees from Prothena, Pfizer, Imbrium, and Akcea.

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The original online version of this article was revised: The acknowledgement of the original article was incomplete. Correct is should read: The CIBMTR is supported primarily by Public Health Service U24CA076518 from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); U24HL138660 from NHLBI and NCI; U01HL128568 from the NHLBI; HHSH250201700006C, and HHSH250201700007C from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA); and N00014-20-1-2705 and N00014-20-1-2832 from the Office of Naval Research; Additional federal support is provided by P01CA111412, R01CA152108, R01CA215134, R01CA218285, R01CA231141, R01AI128775, R01HL126589, R01HL129472, R01HL130388, R01HL131731, U01AI069197, U01AI126612, UG1HL06924, and BARDA. Support is also provided by Be the Match Foundation, Boston Children’s Hospital, Dana Farber, St. Baldrick’s Foundation, Stanford University, the Medical College of Wisconsin the National Marrow Donor Program, and from the following commercial entities: Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Adienne SA; Allovir, Inc.; Amgen, Inc.; Angiocrine Bioscience; Astellas Pharma US; bluebird bio, Inc.; Bristol Myers Squibb Co.; Celgene Corp.; CSL Behring; CytoSen Therapeutics, Inc.; Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.; ExcellThera; Fate Therapeutics; Gamida-Cell, Ltd.; Genentech Inc; Incyte Corporation; Janssen/Johnson & Johnson; Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Kiadis Pharma; Kite, a Gilead Company; Kyowa Kirin; Legend Biotech; Magenta Therapeutics; Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.; Millennium, the Takeda Oncology Co.; Miltenyi Biotec, Inc.; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Omeros Corporation; Oncoimmune, Inc.; Orca Biosystems, Inc.; Pfizer, Inc.; Pharmacyclics, LLC; Sanofi Genzyme; Stemcyte; Takeda Pharma; Vor Biopharma; Xenikos BV. The views expressed in this article do not reflect the official policy or position of the National Institute of Health, the Department of the Navy, the Department of Defense, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) or any other agency of the U.S. Government.

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Dhakal, B., Patel, S., Girnius, S. et al. Hematopoietic cell transplantation utilization and outcomes for primary plasma cell leukemia in the current era. Leukemia 34, 3338–3347 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0830-0

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