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Ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories and obesity and potential causes among 29,250 US children: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth and Kindergarten Cohorts

International Journal of Obesityvolume 42pages16611670 (2018) | Download Citation



Study sex- and ethnic-specific childhood BMI growth trajectories of US children, and explore the potential causes of ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories, including household socio-economic status (SES) and parenting practice using nationally representative longitudinal data.


BMI trajectory curves between 7 months to 16 years of age were fitted using mixed effect models with fractional polynomial functions using pooled 10-year (1998–2008) longitudinal data collected from 29,254 children from two US nationally representative cohorts-Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth (ECLS-B, 2001) and Kindergarten (ECLS-K, 1998–99). A multivariable regression model was used to examine the effects of SES and parenting factors on ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectory.


Hispanic boys (HB) and African-American girls (AAG) continuously had the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity (HB: 52.5%, AAG: 49.1% around age of 11) and mean BMI after adiposity rebound than their counterparts. They had the earliest adiposity rebound (age mean [SD]: HB- 57.9 [7.8]; AAG- 59.0 [7.2] months), steeper BMI growth velocity (HB- 5.7 [1.8]; AAG- 7.0 [1.5] 10-2 kg/m2/month), and highest area under curve (HB- 2724.5 [489.8]; AAG- 2681.2 [426.7] kg/m2*month) from adiposity rebound to 16 years of age. The racial/ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories were associated with household SES and family rules for children’s regular bedtime (p < 0.05).


In the US, ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories and obesity are apparent starting from adiposity rebound around age of five. Some minority groups have unfavorable BMI trajectories. These disparities are partially explained by household SES and parenting factors.

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The present study is funded in part by a research grant from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD, 1R01HD064685-01A1).

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Author notes

  1. These authors contributed equally: Jungwon Min, Xiaozhong Wen.


  1. Systems-Oriented Global Childhood Obesity Intervention Program, Fisher Institute of Health and Well-being, College of Health, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA

    • Jungwon Min
    • , Hong Xue
    •  & Youfa Wang
  2. Division of Behavioral Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA

    • Xiaozhong Wen
    •  & Youfa Wang
  3. Department of Health Behavior and Policy, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA

    • Hong Xue
  4. Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, College of Health, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA

    • Youfa Wang


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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Youfa Wang.

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