Kleefstra syndrome (KS) (9q34 deletion syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by intellectual disability, frequently coupled with a spectrum of complex physical and clinical manifestations. As the euchromatic histone methyltransferase-1 gene (EHMT1, GLP, or KMT1D) within the 9q34 region is deleted or mutated in most of the individuals with KS, its absence or defect in one allele is speculated to cause the major symptoms of the syndrome. Most of the EHMT1 mutations are frameshift or nonsense mutations, but two individuals with KS were reported to possess EHMT1 missense mutations. These two mutations have been predicted to cause a defective enzymatic function, but precise biochemical validation was not conducted. Therefore, we validated these two mutations by performing in vitro histone methyltransferase (HMT) activity assay and found that C1073Y and R1197W mutations severely affected the HMT activity. Additionally, the same amino-acid substitutions in mouse GLP induced impairment of in vivo GLP function. Furthermore, these two EHMT1 mutants showed defective heterocomplex formation with G9a (partner HMT) which is essential for their in vivo HMT function. Conclusively, our biochemical characterization clearly demonstrates that the previously reported two missense mutations of EHMT1 deteriorate HMT activity and GLP function, which presumably cause KS.
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We thank Dr. Masoud Vedadi for providing the hGLP catalytic domain (982–1266 aa) expression vector and Dr. Yasuo Tsunaka for discussion on GLP structural data analysis.
This research was supported by a RIKEN internal research fund.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Yamada, A., Shimura, C. & Shinkai, Y. Biochemical validation of EHMT1 missense mutations in Kleefstra syndrome. J Hum Genet 63, 555–562 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s10038-018-0413-3