The potential of 3D printing in urological research and patient care

Key Points

  • 3D printing is a technology that has been used in manufacturing for a few decades and multiple medical fields have adopted this technology for the creation of both inorganic and organic constructs

  • Inkjet printing, extrusion printing, laser sintering, and stereolithography, each with its own advantages and disadvantages, are the four major techniques used for 3D printing

  • 3D printers were previously expensive, but new models can now be purchased from US$300; the printing times can be highly variable depending on the desired resolution of the construct

  • In urology, 3D printing is currently being applied to create implantable devices such as ureteral stents, as well as inorganic models for surgical planning

  • Animal studies are already underway for the creation of 3D organic constructs that are intended to replace vital organs, including the bladder, kidneys, and urethra

  • The goal of bioprinting 3D organic constructs is to provide a personalized solution for organ replacement, alleviating the shortage of suitable transplant organs and associated complications


3D printing is an evolving technology that enables the creation of unique organic and inorganic structures with high precision. In urology, the technology has demonstrated potential uses in both patient and clinician education as well as in clinical practice. The four major techniques used for 3D printing are inkjet printing, extrusion printing, laser sintering, and stereolithography. Each of these techniques can be applied to the production of models for education and surgical planning, prosthetic construction, and tissue bioengineering. Bioengineering is potentially the most important application of 3D printing, as the ability to produce functional organic constructs might, in the future, enable urologists to replicate and replace abnormal tissues with neo-organs, improving patient survival and quality of life.

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Figure 1: 3D printing techniques.
Figure 2: 3D-printed models for training and education.
Figure 3: 3D printing of a kidney scaffold.


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All authors researched data for the article, made substantial contributions to discussion of the article content, wrote, and reviewed and/or edited the manuscript before submission.

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Correspondence to Marc Colaco.

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Colaco, M., Igel, D. & Atala, A. The potential of 3D printing in urological research and patient care. Nat Rev Urol 15, 213–221 (2018).

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