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Urinary incontinence

Making sense of the urinary microbiota in clinical urology

Nature Reviews Urology volume 13, pages 567568 (2016) | Download Citation

Some urologists might be surprised that the urinary tract is not sterile, and bacteria might have important roles in a number of urological conditions such as urge incontinence. This paradigm shift, which has been further illustrated by data from a recent study, has implications for how urologists diagnose disease and treat patients.

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Author information


  1. Gregor Reid and Jeremy P. Burton are at the Departments of Microbiology & Immunology, and Surgery (Urology), Western University and Lawson Health Research Institute, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, Ontario N6A 4V2, Canada.

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    •  & Jeremy P. Burton


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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gregor Reid.



The term microbiota describes all microorganisms present in a given niche. In many instances, studies only refer to bacteria in the microbiota, but fungi and viruses, for example, can also be included in this term.

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